Thursday, May 21, 2020

Indian Fiscal Policy Impacts - 9621 Words

LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY Term Paper School of Business Department of Management Name of the Student: Azhar Shokin Regd. No.: - 11000968 Course Code: MGT511 Course Title: Business Environment Course Instructor: Vishwas Chakranarayan Course Tutor: Vishwas Chakranarayan Class: MBA Semester: 1st Section: S1001 Batch 2010-12 Student’s Signature Azhar Shokin Topic: - Impact of Fiscal Policy on Indian Economy Contents * Introduction * Literature Review * Research * Article * Analysis * Data and Methodology * Main Findings * Conclusion * Recommendations * References Impact of Fiscal Policy on Indian Economy Introduction In economics, fiscal policy†¦show more content†¦This can be used in times of recession or low economic activity as an essential tool for building the framework for strong economic growth and working towards full employment. In theory, the resulting deficits would be paid for by an expanded economy during the boom that would follow; this was the reasoning behind the New Deal. Governments can use a budget surplus to do two things: to slow the pace of strong economic growth and to stabilize prices when inflation is too high. Keynesian theory posits that removing spending from the economy will reduce levels of aggregate demand and contract the economy, thus stabilizing prices. Economists debate the effectiveness of fiscal stimulus. The argument mostly centers on crowding out, a phenomena where government borrowing leads to higher interest rates that offset the simulative impact of spending. When the government runs a budget deficit, funds will need to come from public borrowing (the issue of government bonds), overseas borrowing, or monetizing the debt. When governments fund a deficit with the issuing of government bonds, interest rates can increase across the market, because government borrowing creates higher demand for credit in the financial markets. This causes a lower aggregate demand for goods and services, contrary to the objective of a fiscal stimulus. Neoclassical economists generally emphasize crowding out while Keynesians argue that fiscalShow MoreRelatedFiscal Policy And Fiscal Policies1046 Words   |  5 PagesFiscal Policy Generally fiscal policy is the set of strategies that government implements or plans to use with certain activities such as the collection of revenues and taxes and expenditure that can influence the overall economic condition of the nation. A well written or planned fiscal policy can lead the nation to the steady path of the strong economy, increase employment and also maintains healthy inflation. Every country needs fiscal policy as fiscal policy plays a vital role on monitoringRead MoreConventional and Unconventional Tools Used by Central Banks, A Basic Study Guide1320 Words   |  5 Pageshas to have a certain amount of reserves with them from the total deposits that have come in the bank. The central bank decides on the percentage of those reserves that the banks hold from the individuals’ deposits. During Expansionary Monetary Policy: a. Change the reserves requirements: The reserve requirement is lowered by the Central Bank as the Central Bank wants to increase the money supply in the economy. b. Open Market Operations: The Central bank buys the financial assets from the banksRead MoreCurrency Depreciation1580 Words   |  7 PagesWe discuss the currency depreciation vs. devaluation. Also, discuss the impact of currency depreciation from Indian economy perspective. Currency Depreciation amp; Impact Rajesh Kanjani (34473) SIBM Exe. MBA (2011-2014) Currency Devaluation vs. Depreciation The devaluation and deprecation of currency go more or less hand in hand. Currency depreciation is an economic result, whereas devaluing a currency is an act that results in currency depreciation. Many a timesRead MoreTerm Paper649 Words   |  3 Pages | |Post Recession Recovery: Indian Context|-----do------- | |5 | |ITC e-chaupal: Strategic Advantage of |-----do------- | | | |CSR | | |7 | |Foreign Investment in Indian economy - |-----do------- | | | Read MoreModi s Policy And Trump Win : Top 8 Economic Changes Expected Essay816 Words   |  4 PagesModi Demonetization Policy and Trump Win: Top 8 Economic Changes Expected In Coming Months In the past 15 days, we have witnessed some unbelievable things happening in India and the USA. On November 8, 2016, the Prime Minister of India announced that all currency notes of 500 and 1000 denominations will no longer be valid after four hours from the announcements. Suddenly, the sun rose in India in the night and people start making serpentine queues in many ATM’s and banks. If this action-packedRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Socio Economy1701 Words   |  7 PagesGlobalization and its Impact on Socio-Economy in India Dr. Mahendra Singh Associate Professor Department of Sociology Madhav University, Pindwara (Rajasthan) Abstract: Globalization was adopted by Indian Government during 1990-91 when Indian Economy was in a very bad shape. It was, however, adopted not as a solution to deteriorating Indian economy but to enable itself to get further foreign exchange loans from World Bank as its foreign exchange reserves were reduced to mere 3 weeks outflow. ToRead MoreTrade Balance in Foreign Countries984 Words   |  4 Pagesthe Indian rupee in the summer of 2013. Government intervention: A wide range of measures is in place to stabilize economy and reduce the gap between rich and poor. These measures are: †¢ Fiscal measures: To reduce the fiscal and revenue deficit the government of India has a strong control over its own expenditure. In 1984, the government announced a package program to curtail public expenditure and to postpone fresh recruitments to government jobs. †¢ Monetary measures: The monetary policy of RBIRead MoreUnion Budget Review1366 Words   |  6 PagesUNION BUDGET 2012-2013 ANALYSIS SAJILAL.N.S Roll No: 8, SIES EMBA 2012 CONTENTS Overview of Indian Economy Approach to Budget Key Attributes of 2012-2013 Budget Challenges Going Forward OVER VIEW OF INDIAN ECONOMY The Indian economy had left behind the low-growth track of the early 1980s, following the bold economic reforms initiated in 1991-93. India began to appear as a significant player in the global economy. India’s exports began to climb, its foreignRead MoreThe Effects Of Fiscal Policy On Inflation Essay1321 Words   |  6 Pages 2.3.3 The evidences of the effects of fiscal policy on inflation Blejer and Cheasty (1988) hold the view that base on the the inflationary-financing model, a decrease of fiscal deficit will leads to reductions in inflation as deficits are assumed to be financed by the inflation tax. After that, more scholars e.g. Buiter (1987), Fischer (1980) and Pfajfar (2014) believe that fiscal deficits will lead to inflation. The reason is that the central government to finance the deficit can be carried outRead MoreGlobal Crisis1656 Words   |  7 PagesThe Major concern in India today is global financial crisis is leading to severe recession, In the real economy. It started showing in the effects middle of 2007 and it to 2008. Various sectors like steel, fertilizers, financial things, banking. Now Indian Government was taking considerable step for this global crisis in the next year i.e; 2010. We can see 9% rises in global economy. TATA MOTORS: In June 2008, Tata motors has acquired the Jaguar land Rover business from ford motor Company

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Transportation And Logistics Industry - 1409 Words

The transportation and logistics industry is one of the key components of modern life. It provides the framework through which every raw material and finished consumer good is moved through the supply chain into the hands of consumers. This industry is generally taken for granted by consumers. When consumers do think about the industry it is thought of in terms of unchanging and stagnate transportation modes. This vision of the industry is not an accurate reflection of the reality of modern transportation industry. During the last several decades the technological innovations that have changed the face of modern life, have also had far reaching effects on the transportation industry. The pressures driving innovation in the industry†¦show more content†¦Innovations that improve the functioning of transportation modes are occurring across all modes of the transportation industry. Truck transportation has been the backbone of freight movements in the United States and ac ross the globe for decades. While utilizing trucks is an economical way to move freight for short hauls of less than a 1,000 miles, there are high environmental and infrastructure costs for utilizing this mode of transportation. According to Lowe, road transportation’s use of energy resources rose 103 per cent in the period since 1970 (2005). Additionally, Lowe points out that road transportation’s emission of green house gasses, â€Å"increased by 76% between 1971 and 1989† (Lowe, 2005, p. 112). Furthermore, road transportation is the largest polluter in the industry. It utilizes â€Å"over 80% of the total energy used in the transport sector and contributes over 75% of its total CO2 output (Lowe, 2005, p. 113). Finally, freight transportation by heavy vehicles causes pavement damage at significantly higher rates than passenger traffic (SSTI, 2011). Road transportation providers have adopted several innovations that have lowered the environmental impact of this transportation mode. The adoption of clean diesel technology by the industry has resulted in significant reductions in fuel use and emissions by trucks. This innovation in diesel engineShow MoreRelatedLogistics Industry : Information, Transportation, Inventory, Warehousing, Storage, And Storage Goods1952 Words   |  8 PagesLOGISTICS INDUSTRY Logistics is the process where the movement of goods from point of origin to point of consumption is planned, monitored, controlled and delivered in a proper condition. It is the process of ensuring the proper and safe delivery of quality goods at the right place, right time, right quantity and to the right person. Logistics is concerned with getting the products and services where they are needed and when they are desired. It is difficult to accomplish any marketing or manufacturingRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Ryder Systems Inc. Essay950 Words   |  4 Pagesmarket of commercial transportation, logistics, and supply chain management. Ryder currently operates in two segments: fleet management solutions (FMS) and supply chain solutions (SCS). FMS generates the majority of Ryder’s revenue. This product includes leases, rentals, contract and contract-related maintenance, and fuel services. SCS provides consulting services globally (Nieman, 2013). Over the past 80 years, Ryder has transformed from a model A Ford truck into and industry leading Fortune 500Read MoreThe United States: The Impact of Its Economy on Transportation and Logistics Management811 Words   |  3 PagesIts Economy on Transportation and Logistics Management Transportation and logistics coordinate the movement of goods and people. The transportation and logistics industry is the catalyst that propels the American economy. However, it works both ways. Economic pressures on the national, regional, and local levels affect decisions and policies made by logistics managers. This paper will explore the intricate relationship between the United States economy and Transportation and Logistics management. ConsumerRead MoreWhat Makes A Business Transaction?906 Words   |  4 Pagestransporting. As the firm grows locally, nationally, or internationally, transportation and distribution assistance is required to meet consumer demands. Here is where the demand for transportation and logistics begins with a business that may involve importing and exporting supplies required for production, and ends with a consumer receiving products purchased. (Dowlatshahi, 2010), describes inbound and outbound transportation performance as simply achieving scheduled delivery times which displaysRead MoreUsing RFID Technology in the Transportation Sector1562 Words   |  6 Pagesand tracking the process (Advantages of RFID in Transportation and Logistics, 2011). In the current times, radio frequency identification technology has upgraded from anonymity into applications that are rather used normally and as a consequence has helped in the acceleration of manufactured materials handling (Want, 2006). There are several uses of RFID in various sectors. However, this paper will only deal with its uses in the transportation sector and how effectively this modern technologyRead MoreEssay about C.H Robinson Worldwide Logistics Research 1427 Words   |  6 Pages1. INDUSTRY C.H. Robinson Worldwide is a third party logistics â€Å"provider of multimodal transportation services and logistics solutions.† ( C.H. Robinson Worldwide belongs to the industrial sector, airfreight and logistics sub-industry. Jim Corridore in the Standards and Poors Sub-Industry review states that there is â€Å"a positive fundamental outlook for the air freight and logistics industry for the next 12 months.† ( Katie Lally suggests that 2014 â€Å"should still beRead MoreAchieving Transportation Excellence1371 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Achieving Transportation Excellence How is process improvement important to achieving transportation excellence? How might process improvement be extended to other areas of logistics planning? The transportation sector is continually evolving. Whether moving people or products by land, sea, or air, all transportation strategies need to balance proficient network design and operations with rising intricacy, government supervision, environmental accountability, security risks and demands for flexibilityRead MoreThe Third Party Logistics Industry904 Words   |  4 Pages Third Party Logistics Industry Third party logistics industry (3PL) also referred to as logistic outsourcing has become a thriving sector within the supply chain and logistics sector. As the world of logistics and supply chain management has grown so has the need for third party logistics providers to deliver comprehensive services to companies that are constantly looking for ways to stay competitive and innovative in order to improve processes, increase profits, and lower costRead MoreA Brief Note On Maritime Logistics Of Petroleum Products1460 Words   |  6 Pagesprocess of maritime logistics of petroleum products, as they derive from world trade flows. Currently the main factors that affect the supply chain industry and sea transportation of these products are the major external effects of the economic factors of each country involved in the process, climate technology and geopolitics. However, businesses, government and society are also big influencers of the petroleum product chain. First we briefly introduce the crude oil industry from which petroleumRead MoreA Brief Note On Systems And Logistics Support Management1070 Words   |  5 Pages Third-Party Logistics Gregory Long Florida Institute of Technology MG 5061: Systems and Logistics Support Management Dr. Janice Spangenberg February 28, 2016 Abstract Today’s world business environment has become so competitive that companies in order to be successful in the market must deal with different resources for satisfying their customer need. In the past decade or so the competitive global market has made a big influence in

Motivation and Performance Theories in Relation to New Zealand Post Free Essays

A simple game of bingo, if analysed closely, can be shown to be a tedious task consisting of a repetitive action that occurs after being prompted by a repetitive stimulus. The skill level needed to make that action is low, and the variability in the rules of the game rarely changes. This game is not unlike many of the jobs that can be classified as having low motivational performance. We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation and Performance Theories in Relation to New Zealand Post or any similar topic only for you Order Now So why do people not only enjoy playing games like bingo, but actually pay money to have the pleasure? The answer directly points to the motivating factors of monetary rewards, which is the stimulus for the individual†s performance. In this essay I will discuss the theory behind â€Å"Motivation† and â€Å"Performance† in relation to New Zealand Post and the theoretical ideals that their management should adopt with employees. There are many theories regarding motivation with the most prevalent being the theories of Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. It is important to understand these theories and their implications to accurately comment on reinforcement theories of motivation. According to Maslow†s hierarchy of needs, there are five classes: (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) social, (4) esteem, and (5) self-actualisation. (Karen. P. Harlos Lecture Notes) each lower level need must be satisfied before an individual experiences higher level needs. Also, as Hall, Batley, Elkin, Geare, Johnston, Jones, Selsky and Sibbald (1999) found that Maslow hypothesized that as physiological, safety, social, and esteem needs were satisfied, they ceased to motivate, while the self-actualisation needs actually motivate an individual more as they are satisfied (Hall et al. 999). Herzberg used this theory as a base to build his motivation-hygiene theory, which ties Maslow†s needs to on the job achievement. The hygiene elements relate to low needs (physiological, safety, and social)(Harlos 2000). For an individual, hygiene conditions include company policy and administration, supervision, relationships with peers and supervisors, work conditions, salary, status, and security. These, according to Herzberg account for 69% of the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction or lack of motivation. The motivation conditions, which include achievement, the job itself, recognition, responsibilities, and personal growth, accounted for 81% of the factors that contributed to job satisfaction. The hygiene conditions are extrinsic factors (behaviour that is performed for material or social rewards as defined by Harlos 2000) while the motivation conditions are intrinsic factors (behaviour that is performed for its own sake not for material or social rewards as defined by Harlos 2000), and the only way to sustain motivation toward organizational goals is through the achievement of intrinsic outcomes. Each of these theories has proven to contain ideas consistent with human nature, but each also has its limitations within organizational settings. Because lower order needs are generally satisfied in the workplace today, managers have to deal with how to provide esteem and self-actualisation to their employees, and that can be a vague concept to a manager who demands results immediately. Also, studies demonstrate that different workers are motivated by different factors be them intrinsic or extrinsic. In relation to New Zealand Post the above theories can be applied to achieve an excellent level of motivation within the organization, however there are potential disadvantages also, where the employees may get over-motivated or become too empowered and thus create divisions within the organization. In terms of Maslow†s theory, the five levels of needs could be ensured by mangers of NZ Post and overall by the corporate planners of NZ Post by the following; in terms of physiological needs, money is the driving factor here as it provides the a means of achieve food, shelter, warmth and sleep, thus that management role is very limited, as it is controlled to a degree by relevant laws of the country. However those above the management who set wages must be careful not to set wages too low, otherwise workers will become grossly dissatisfied and look elsewhere to achieve their basic needs (Hall et al. 999). At the safety level NZ Post can provide their employees with agreeable contracts and work benefits such as health care. A work environment that is considered safe as well as adequate ongoing training is another aspect, also assurances of long-term employment (Hall et al. 1999). Social level issues can be resolved by NZ Post by organising teams maybe by regions and encouraging group satisfaction, or perhaps even making sure contact is established by way of team sports days, or annual picnic†s etc, any activity that ensures worker contact (Hall et al. 999). The next level is perhaps the most crucial in terms of how much NZ Post management is concerned, management may be able to fill esteem needs of the employee by showing recognition of a job well done, which may lead to a internal structure whereby levels of achievement are reached, and as the employee reaches these levels they may gain more responsibility within the organisation (Hall et al. 1999). Self actualisation needs in terms of what management can do for employees to reach this stage, entirely depend on the individual, and the previous stage, as itself esteem is realised then self actualisation becomes of more importance, and so the employee is self-motivated and the role of the NZ Management is merely one of maintenance (Hall et al. 1999). The above are all very good in theory, but in practice the implications of some of these theories for an individual and for the organisation can be crucial. NZ Post Management couldn†t be blamed if they felt the offering of money to an employee over and above what the individual needs to satisfy there needs would result in that individual working harder, however what is more likely to happen is the individual isn†t motivated anymore by that factor, and is instead motivated by esteem needs, as cited in Hall et al. 2000) â€Å"A satisfied need is not a motivator† The application of the Herzberg two-factor model is in practice much more involved that I first thought, there seems to be a large amount of criticism about Herzberg, which I will attempt to briefly outline, and thus if NZ Post was to adapt this theory it may not provide the right answer to any problems they may be facing. Firstly there has been research done into the methodology of Herzberg’s research, it seems that by asking the questions in the way that they did it was only natural that individuals would attribute the good things about the job to themselves and the bad things to the organisation (as suggested by Vroom 1964 cited in Thomson 1989). So the good things simply became meting challenges, getting promoted and assuming responsibility, whereas bad things were in affect always the fault of the organisation. Thus it was reasonable for individuals to attribute their lack of performance as being a result of poor organisational structure or communication, or poor wages or bad working conditions, therefore Herzberg†s findings were more a result of the way the questions were asked and not altogether an indication of what motivated individuals at work. The second criticism that arises is whether or not it is possible to clearly â€Å"distinguish between motivator and hygiene variables in the way that two factor theory does. † (Thomson 1989 pg 164). At times factors like the gender of the worker and the structure of the organisation tends to influence whether or not a job characteristics acts as a motivator or a hygiene, thus the distinction is not as clear cut as Herzberg†s theory would suggest. Finally the two-factor theory just doesn†t take into consideration the differences between individuals, its just known that individuals do not always react in a similar fashion, for the same work characteristics which will motivate one individual may not necessary motivate another. I suggest for NZ Post to be able to maintain the calibre of people they strive for, and to provide tools to develop and grow, the best way to create the desired environment and create the best management would be to adopt Maslow†s theories, as it allows for more of an individual touch to individual situations. McGregor developed an additional theory on human behaviour, motivation, and especially performance in the late 1950†³s. His theories X and Y and were based on assumptions made regarding the â€Å"system† and individuals. In short, in Theory X (the most common management practice) management organizes all elements of production, motivates and controls employee behaviour to fit the needs of the organization, and without this intervention, employees would be indifferent to changing organizational needs. McGregor further assumes that managers believe that the average employee is by nature are lazy, dislike work, want security and dislike responsibility (as cited by Harlos 2000). McGregor†s alternative to Theory X was Theory Y. This theory made the assumptions that management has the responsibility for organizing the elements of production, people are not by nature passive, but become so as a result of experiences, management should enable employees to develop their motivational characteristics, and that it is essential for management to arrange organizational conditions in a manner where employees can achieve their own goals by directing their personal effort towards organizational objectives. The contrast between X and Y solely relates to who controls human behaviour. Theory X touts external control, and Theory Y promotes a self-fulfilling prophecy and that Theory Y management will breed Theory Y employees and vice-versa. In the application of McGregor†s theories an obvious pitfall is that obviously given the choice management will opt for Theory Y, however the application can result in a very different outcome. Theory Y places an unrealistic amount of burden on the management, and thus they have to sometimes resort to Theory X as no matter how much nurturing or inspiration managers give to employees, there will always be some who just have no desire to work, and show little or no initiative. So NZ Post may run many seminars to attempt to increase performance, or empower those who management feel need a performance boost, yet inevitably those who have no desire to perform better will just not respond to any of these performance motivators and hence management will have to resort to Theory X management to get these employees to work as they should be. Another problem may be with those employees who have been part of the organisation for a number of years, and a new fresh inspirational manager comes along who has been to all the courses and seminars and has used all the theories, and yet these employees are so used to old school Theory X management, they will just simply not be able to conform to this new Theory Y management style, as suggested in Hall et al. (1999) In conclusion I have outlines both Maslow†s and Herzberg†s theories in relation to motivation and McGregor†s theories in relation to performance. I also have suggested ways in which NZ Post could apply these theories to enable them to better fulfil their corporate profile statement. I suggested that perhaps Herzberg†s theory would not be best suited to NZ Post due to the many flaws in the application of his theory and that Maslow†s theory in practice would enable a better fufilment of the corperate profile statement. How to cite Motivation and Performance Theories in Relation to New Zealand Post, Essay examples