Saturday, August 31, 2019
Saudi Arabia has a well developed healthcare system incorporating private and private facilities. Largely, there are healthcare centers that offer universal healthcare services incorporating emergency, preventive as well as basic services to the culturally rich Saudi Arabian population (Marshall, 1999). Largely, the government is quite instrumental in the provision of healthcare to its citizens. The government has put in place a referral system that has over three hundred hospitals offering both general and specialized facilities. Thus, vetting and placement of the staff is undertaken by the government. The cultural influences are quite significant as they determine specific roles accorded to men and women medical professionals and practitioners (Mansour & Al-Osaimi, 2003). This document presents an in depth study and research of the way the rich Saudi Arabian culture influences the human resource management as well as quality of service delivery of the healthcare facilities. Introduction to the problem The Saudi Arabian culture is based on the Islamic law and religious teachings, thus there is a disparity in the manner in which men and women are treated. Largely, women are discriminated against in regard to the employment opportunities a well as management of healthcare facilities. Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s law is based upon such Islamic Shariah premises of equality, justice and consultation (Baldo, 1995). Nonetheless, women are not accorded similar equality as their male counterparts. Although, the cultural stipulations play a significant role in setting the gender roles and expectations, sometimes women prefer to work in segregated areas willingly. Through close guidance of the highlighted research questions, this study will explore the cultural influences that impact management styles and staff selection in the healthcare sector. Purpose of the study In any society, cultural practices are critical in determining and influencing personal thoughts, behaviors as well as emotions. More often than not, culture shapes the perceptions and socialization of individuals as both the sub cultural and socioeconomic differences determine the levels of interaction and the manner in which activities are carried out. Data and information obtained from this research will be used to explore the impact that culture has on the way human resources management as well as service delivery in the healthcare sector is undertaken. Literature review The Saudi Arabian Ministry of health is tasked with provision of comprehensive as well as integrative healthcare to its citizens which complies with the stipulated Islamic principles (Long, 2007). Largely, the government ensures that the health care sector is upgraded through provision of qualified employees who not only ensure health care awareness is achieved but also provide the best services to its citizens. The government boasts a wide range of healthcare facilities. According to Long, (2007) in such healthcare sectors as maternal healthcare and immunization, significant improvement in the quality and service delivery has been recorded. The government ensures that employees have appropriate training and good remuneration that ensures they are well motivated thereby able to undertake the specified tasks. Cultural and social complexities are quite prevalent in Saudi Arabia with extensive gender segregation being exhibited in the country. Women are expected to be fully veiled while in the presence of male counterparts and avoid any from of contact from unrelated males. According to Ali & Mahmoud (2003), a complete veil popularly known as niqab and abaya is meant to ensure that women maintain moral behavior as well the honor of their family is upheld. Ambika, (1998) asserts that for convenience purposes it is common to have women working in separate offices so as to unveil their faces and hair without being subjected to any form of harassment. Women are not allowed to undertake outside assignment except while in the company of their male relatives popularly referred to as Maram (Littlewood &Yousuf, 2001). Largely, women are employed in sectors where they will offer medical help to women clientele while male practitioners are restricted in areas where they will serve male clients. Nonetheless, in the even that a female patient requires specialized treatment which can only be effected by a male doctor, then the male doctor is allowed to offer the services under close watch of a female nurse. Research questions This research is intended to establish the correlation between cultural influences in Saudi Arabia and the management practices that are in existence. Primarily, the research question that this research will be pegged upon therefore is: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does Culture influence the gender roles and management practices of the Saudi Arabian health care system? In order to further widen the scope of this primary research question, other specific questions will also be incorporated. These specific questions are outlined below; Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is the prevalence of male and female managers in public and private sector hospitals? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does culture have any influence on management roles of public hospitals in Saudi Arabia? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do religious beliefs have any impact on gender roles? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does personal behavior and legal procedures influence selection and placement of staff to manage of healthcare facilities? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Has modernity had any influence on the management of healthcare facilities? Scope of the study This research will focus primarily on the public healthcare sector. The main reason why the study will be concentrated in the public sector is because in Saudi Arabia, most of the population relies on the public hospitals for provision of healthcare services. Largely treatment is provided free of charge in the public hospitals although patients maybe required to purchase prescribed drugs (Khoja & Kabbash, 2007). In public healthcare facilities, Islamic rules and culture influences are adhered to strictly during staff placement process and are also the guiding principles in the daily running of the facilities (Khoja & Kabbash, 2007). The public sector will essentially present an ideal backdrop upon which the research will be based. Research methodology This segment details the data collection modalities that will be used to analyze highlighted research questions. Largely, the research will incorporate live interviews and questionnaires to collect data which is not only reliable but also valid. Interviews are reliable as the interviewed medical professionals will provide original data obtained from their specific work stations. It will also put the researcher at a advantageous position as the researcher will not only collect the data but will also observe the respondents. Additionally, the questionnaire will be structured in such a way that the research questions will be met and will therefore make data interpretation process easy. Through the use of questionnaires, the researcher is assured of obtaining detailed data that is essentially useful in the analysis of the research questions. Interviews will essentially provide up to date data as the interviewed respondents are those currently operating in the public healthcare facilities. Additionally, interviews essentially enrich the data interpretation process especially because some respondents are likely to share in depth insights regarding the management of the healthcare facilities. Interviews will also work to collect conclusive data especially because questions that may be misinterpreted in the questionnaires can be easily addressed. Interview Schedule In order to have valid data collected on the research questions, it is essential that only reliable respondents are interviewed. Largely, the bulk of respondents will be the former and current public health care management officers as they are aware of the modalities that are put in place to ensure efficient management of the facilities (Marshall, 1999). In this regard, the interviewer has approached over twelve respondents namely; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Two Saudi Arabia Ministry of health Human resources officers Ã¢â¬ ¢ Two public hospitals Chief Executive officers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Four male Public health doctors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Four female public health doctors Additionally, the researcher has developed a questionnaire with the specific research questions that the respondents will be expected to respond to. The targeted respondents have expressed outmost willingness to provide required data. Reflection on limitations The researcher is well aware of the limitations associated with collection of the required data. For instance, getting respondents who are willing to offer required information in the projected time span is a challenge. The targeted respondents are medical professionals who have tight and busy schedules and itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible that they will be handling patients. Nonetheless, in order to counter this setback, the researcher will incorporate technological advancements such as web teleconferencing thereby be able to undertake online interviews. Another challenge that maybe exhibited through the use of questionnaires is the misinterpretation of research questions. In this regard, the researcher will ensure that the research questions are terse and straightforward in order to avoid any irrelevant responses. Ethical concerns Any credible research must adhere to strict ethical standards. Thus, the researcher has put in place principles to ensure contemporary ethical standards are adhered to. Firstly, the researcher will ensure anonymity of all respondents through concealing all identities. Secondly, respondents will not be coerced to provide required data; rather they will provide all information willingly. Thirdly, respondents will be informed beforehand the data collection procedure as well as the risks associated with the research process. Lastly, respondents will have an opportunity to validate data collected as the researcher will avail copies of the research to the respondents. Conclusion This research will rely on primary data collection procedures namely interviews and questionnaires to collect valid data essential in making inferences regarding cultural influences in the management of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia. All the targeted respondents are involved in the management of the healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia; hence there is no doubt that collected data and research analysis will be valid. Upon receipt of feedback on this proposal, the researcher will formulate interview schedules that will help investigate the culture impact on human resource management as well as quality of service delivery in Saudi Arabia healthcare facilities. Time schedule This Grant schedule will guide the time durations essential for accomplishment of the total research.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Poetry The theme of the poem is that trying to ignoring reality does not solve any problems. The speaker dives deeps into books to hide from his day to day problems. However, he does no benefit from this when his eyes go bad from reading. In the end, the speakers problems caught up with him and he could no longer escape from them in books. He unfortunately turned to alcohol to solve his problems. Larkin demonstrates the theme by hinting the character traits of his persona. Also Larkin uses elements such as tone, metaphors, similes, allusion and symbols to create a deeper understanding of the theme. Ã¢â¬Å"A Study of Reading HabitsÃ¢â¬ is somewhat of dry title, but as the poem progresses, it starts to make more and more sense. The poem is about the progression of a mans life, from his childhood to his adult life. He grew up loving books because he could escape from reality. However, reading books became a habit to escape everyday hardships. But overtime the books started reminding him of his own life and he could no longer escape. In his youth, the speaker would use reading to get away from different things such as school and bullies. He did not care if reading ruined his eyes because in books he could imagine anything and escape reality. He could imagine being cool and fighting the bullies Ã¢â¬Å"twice my sizeÃ¢â¬ (line 6). Later on, during adolescence, the speaker liked reading darker books. His eyes were starting to go bad from reading so he had to wear Ã¢â¬Å"inch-thick specsÃ¢â¬ (7). He enjoyed the evilness of his books. With his Ã¢â¬Å"cloak and fangsÃ¢â¬ (9) , he would have sex with women and humiliate them . Now, in the present, the speaker doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t read anymore because the stories are too closely related to his issues. He can no longer escape his problems regarding his lousy life. As a result, the speaker condemns books altogether stating that they Ã¢â¬Å"are a load of crapÃ¢â¬ (18) and turns to alcohol to resolve his problems. He recommends to Ã¢â¬Å"get stewedÃ¢â¬ (17) instead of reading. The speaker in this poem speaks in first person. The imaginative person envisions a fantasy world where he could be cool and Ã¢â¬Å"deal out the old right hookÃ¢â¬ to his bullies (5). The speaker is also lonely. In the final stanza the speaker realizes that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to face reality. His whole entire youth was created through fictional books and now the more matureÃ books, highlight his lonesome. Additionally, the speaker is resentful. During his childhood, books were of so much value to him. They were worth Ã¢â¬Å"ruining my eyesÃ¢â¬ (3). But the books in that time were fictional, and most likely of superheroes and other fictional idols. Later on, the speaker realizes he is not equipped for reality and believes Ã¢â¬Å"books are a load of crapÃ¢â¬ (18). The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s tone is disappointed and bitter. There was a smooth, euphonic quality to the words in the beginning stanza. This emphasized how easygoing and fantasy-like childhood can be. Also, there was alliteration in line 6. The text Ã¢â¬Å"dirty dogsÃ¢â¬ was symbolism of the personaÃ¢â¬â¢s bullies. This alliteration illuminated upon the name calling present in youth. Additionally, the poem contained a rhyme scheme within stanzas. The poem is about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s life progression. Each stanza represents a different stage in life. The first stanza represents his childhood, the second stanza represents the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s adolescence and in the final stanza the speaker comes to terms with reality that he can no longer hide behind books. He realizes that his world is less fulfilling than the fantasies portrayed in books. He feels betrayed by books and his tone becomes bitter. As the speakers life progresses throughout the stanzas, his views on books become contradictory. The very first line in the poem pertains to the speakersÃ¢â¬â¢s love Ã¢â¬Å"of getting [his] nose in a bookÃ¢â¬ (1). On the contrary, the final stanza represents the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s new feelings towards books. Compared to the first line, the very last line states that the speaker believes books are a worthless Ã¢â¬Å"load of crapÃ¢â¬ (18). In this poem Larking uses literary devices such as a metaphor and a simile. The line Ã¢â¬Å"the chap whoÃ¢â¬â¢s yellow and keeps the store, seem far too familiarÃ¢â¬ (15-17) functions as imagery. The speaker is characterizing the character is his stories as the color yellow. The color yellow has negative connotations such as cowardice, faithlessness and betrayal, which is exactly how the speaker is feeling about his book at this stage in his life. This metaphor produces the effect of a cowardly or faithless character, who evidently relates to the speaker. The authors use of a simile is alsoÃ present in the poem. The simile is obvious in line 12, where the speaker talks about how he thought of women. He did not think much of them and Ã¢â¬Å"broke them up like meringuesÃ¢â¬ in his fantasized worlds. He compares women to meringues, a light, airy, sweet desert. This simile functions as his desire for sexual encounters with women. The poetic device of allusion is also evident in the poem. Allusion is created in the second stanza when the speaker makes the allusion to vampires when describing his interest in dark fictional books. The words Ã¢â¬Å"cloakÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"fangsÃ¢â¬ function as characteristics usually related to vampires as well as the word Ã¢â¬Å"sexÃ¢â¬ , representing his sexual maturity. The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s taste in fictional text matures, along with his sexual interests. Symbolism is evident in the poem. The most obvious symbolism is the poem structure itself. The poem is three stanzas long, each symbolizing a different stage in his life. The first stanza is clearly represents his childhood. The speaker has typical childhood bullies and his tone even seems to be that of a child. As a kid, he reads escape these bullies and to feel better about himself. The second stanza represents his adolescence stage in life. The speakers tone is much more mature and dark as he talks about evil and sex. He also admires the symbol of a vampire and has a stronger sexual drive. Finally the last stanza symbolizes his later years. He starts to realize that he cant escape his problems anymore and even relates himself to the weak characters in his books. Also symbolism is evident when the speaker describes the books he dislikes during adulthood. Lines 13 to 17 talk about characters in books that are cowards or fall short. In line 17, the speaker is uncomfortable with these books because the characters Ã¢â¬Å"seem far too familiarÃ¢â¬ . The characters in these books function as symbols of the speaker and his lousy life.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Bad School System Essay What are schools doing for us? If nothing then what can we do to improve them? I think they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t doing anything. I have never really thought about this idea until I started research. I think that I am fairly smart, but it is more of after school rather than school itself. I was watching a TED TALK from Ken Robinson and he was talking about how schools kill creativity. He talks about how schools are good at making people who do their jobs successfully. He also says that those same people are doing that job because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any other choice. By showing this he is trying to show that school kills creativity. Salman Khan the founder of Khan Academy talks about how students donÃ¢â¬â¢t get to work on their own pace. Dave Eggers the founder of 826 Valencia talks about how students need 1-1 attention to learn their talents. Ken Robinson has many different videos on school all talking about how school has problems that need to be solved. The one that I watched was Ã¢â¬Å"Ken Robinson says schools kill creativityÃ¢â¬ . He talks about how school trains you in a way that creates a fear of making mistakes. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not prepared to be wrong, then you will never be originalÃ¢â¬ . We are being educated out of creativity. Teachers are not ready to have things be wrong. When grading test or any kind of work there is no such thing as maybe, it is just right or wrong. There are always those kids who are over the top smart and there are those kids that are very creative but not as smart. In this scenario you know that the kid who has the brains is going to get the popularity. Nobody is going to go to the creative kid for help even though he/she might have something worth saying. Then those creative kids will also have to adapt to the school system and eventually lose their creativity. Salman Khan has one very important video on TED and it talks about how students do really get to learn on their own pace in school. The TED TALK is called Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s use video to reinvent educationÃ¢â¬ . In this video he talks about his website www.Khanacademy.com. In this website he has different topics for which he has videos for. He also has sort of an online learning system on the same website. In that learning system they want you to master different concepts that you are having trouble with. So they show you videos on how to do the problem then set you on your own. If you still donÃ¢â¬â¢t have perfection then they allow you to repeat. They want you to master the concept by letting you do the whole process as many times as you like. By this you are allowed to learn at your own pace. In school you learn a chapter take a test then move on. Even if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand you move on, also the students who get like 90 to 99.9% they still might have some problems that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. I also experienced Khan Academy, I have an account and I am always using it when I need help on something. Dave Eggers has one video on TED and it talks about why students are happier to go to tutoring rather than school itself. In his TED TALK Ã¢â¬Å"Once Upon a SchoolÃ¢â¬ he shows the audience of a place that he created called 826 Valencia. This is a shop that he founded in which he connected a newspaper editor center, a pirate shop, and a after school tutoring center. He says that students come there running after school to do homework. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not really something that you think of. The students get help on any HW especially their English homework. He has his Newspaper crew and volunteers help students 1-1 on HW. He has students write books and then publishes the books. He says that students need 1-1 time with whomever they are working with. In school students donÃ¢â¬â¢t really get 1-1 time during school to talk about things that they are having trouble with and stuff like that. In a year he has over 1,400 volunteers helping run 826 Valencia. He thinks that if students are able to have 1-1 time with teachers on their work then they would be more creative. They students would never know if they were doing well or if they needed to improve in certain areas. If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t watched this TED TALK them I recommend every one the watch it. All three of these guys show great ways to improve the School system. These guys are already doing it outside of school, which shows that our School System isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really great. There are many problems with our School System we just never think about them as students. You would never think that School would kill your creativity, but when you think about itÃ¢â¬ ¦ Bad School System. (2016, Dec 08).
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Case Portfolio - Essay Example 4. Facts : Ã¢â¬Å"The City of Ferndale, Michigan, adopted a comprehensive ordinance regulating massage parlors. Parlor owners contested the constitutionality of the ordinance, claiming that the warrantless search provision was in violation of the Fourth Amendments prohibition of unreasonable searches. Court of appeals held the searches to be unconstitutional; City appealed.Ã¢â¬ (www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/warrantless_searches.html) 8. Rule of the Case : The right against unreasonable searches exists under the Fourth Amendment but an exemption from the search warrant requirement exists for administrative inspections of closely regulated industries.( www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/warrantless_searches.html) 9. Reasons : Persons choosing to engage in a pervasively regulated business know that their business will be subject to effective inspection. The right to privacy must be balanced with the right of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s police power. (www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/warrantless_searches.html) 4. Facts : Ã¢â¬Å"The FDA was sued "from enforcing policies restricting certain forms of manufacturer promotion of off-label uses for FDA-approved drugs and devices." The policies are expressed through complex and detailed Guidance Documents controlling manufacturer distribution of reprints of medical textbooks and peer-reviewed journal articles, and manufacturer involvement in continuing medical education and symposia.Ã¢â¬ (www.swlearning.com/blaw/cases/fda_limits.html) 6. Issue(s) : Whether FDA could limit any pharmaceutical or medical device manufacturer or other person from disseminating to medical professionals articles and textbooks published by independent publishers and by bona fide peer-review journals. 9. Reasons : Ã¢â¬Å"The regulations in question violate the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s Central Hudson test for commercial speech. Less intrusive regulations could address the concerns of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Conducting training sessions - Essay Example Task D (printing of handout copies), will only commence after training materials (task B) shall have been developed, hence it depends on task B. At the same time, task E (developing PowerPoint slides) also depends on task B, hence, will only commence after task B is completed. However, task D and E are concurrent since they can take place or commence at the same time. After developing PowerPoint slides (task D), one can go ahead to conduct a practice training session (task F). However, task F cannot be carried out before task D, hence task F is dependent on task D. Lastly, to conduct user training sessions (task G), task C (confirming of arrangement of training facility), task D (printing of handout copies) and task F (conducting practice training sessions) must have been completed. It means therefore that, task G is dependent on task C, task D and task F. The critical path therefore is when the project comes from task A to C to G. this is the longest path that the project can take to a successful completion. It will take a total of 15 days for the training session to come from the start all through to completion. However, the project can take other alternative shorter routes like go through rout 1 and 2 above which take 11 days and 13 days
Monday, August 26, 2019
Using modelling, critical evacuate the effectiveness of leadership and management using a chosen successful elite Soccer manager - Essay Example The paper highlights the traits of an effective manager and links them with the performance of Jose Mourinho, followed with a conclusion. Leadership is a process where an individual influences a group of other individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse & Northouse, 2009). Leadership is of immense value in managerial jobs. In reference to football, leadership plays a pivotal role not only in coaching of the team but also in recruiting of the most appropriate team members, providing them with moral support and in assigning them responsibilities according to each oneÃ¢â¬â¢s competency. Since stakeholders have invested millions of dollars at times into the football club, it is expected that the team would perform well. Therefore an experienced and talented manager is chosen so that he is able to bring out the best in the team members and appoint a competent coach who channelize the talents of the members and make the team win. Therefore managers are usually held responsible for the performance of the team; if the performance of the team is not up to the standard, managers can get fired. This accentuates the risky n ature of the job and the amount of responsibility that the manager has. A team is nothing without a good coach; the coach not only maps out the positions each player is going to play after scrutinizing the individual capabilities of the players, but also makes an analysis of the competition that the team is going to face in the playing arena and justly devises strategies to aid the team in specializing in particular game moves that will make them play better in comparison with their competitors. The role of a football manager extends beyond the fiscal matters of the team. A successful manager is one who is rated high on his relationship with the team. The manager motivates the team and builds up their morale. The attitude of the manager with
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Argument-Deliberative (4 pages) DIRECTLY addressing a specific audience who holds a proposition with which you Disagree) - Essay Example Perhaps, a rebellion against this standardized will open the door to the reshaping of our schools and the implementation of much more sophisticated and effective accountability measures.Ã¢â¬ (Marshak, David, 2003). He further adds that we need to reinvent education by teaching students how to be creative, which requires long term relationship between students and teachers. So the present system of changing teachers every 50 minutes should be stopped and teachers be appointed for one to two year to develop personal relationship with students. Students should also have common learning goals and individuals learning goals. Moreover, he believes that in future curriculum should include synthesis, problem solving, creativity, and analysis promote inventive thinking. Though some of his ideas seem to be good, it may not be practical one. In order to understand the hollowness in his arguments against standardized testing system, one should know how it functions. A test which is conducted in a standard manner is called a standardized test. This testing system gauges candidates against one another and a standard is fixed to assess progress in a school, aptitude to attend institutions of higher education and to put candidates in programs suited to their aptitude. These tests are designed in a special way that rules for conducting, questions, interpretations, and scoring pattern are reliable and conducted and scored in a prearranged, standard manner. United States enacted elementary and secondary education act, 1965 which made it mandatory standardized testing in public schools. In 2001, United States passed US Public Law 107- 110, which is also called Ã¢â¬ËNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001Ã¢â¬â¢, which binds public school funding to standardized testing. It consists of true- false and multiple-choice questions. Generally, it is a computer adaptive test. Some standardized testing have essay
For admission - Personal Statement Example Thus, while benefiting from the first hand experiences and active performances, I still lacked academic learning in the field of music. This pushed me to opt for a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in Music and Performance at the Indiana University. I have now completed my masters and I feel that I am on a good stand with regard to academic learning as well as performance. But I still believe that further learning and practice would enhance and polish my skills. It would make my academic ground stronger and it is for this purpose that I wish to enroll in the doctoral program at the University of Michigan. The University of Michigan is one of the most prestigious universities in the United States and it will provide me with the best opportunities to strengthen my career. I would then be able to go back to Korea as a musician having both strong practical skills as well as possessing good academic skills. This would assist me in performing well and at the same time in becoming a good instructor and thus impart my knowledge to the students in
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Molecular Changes in Oral Cancer Progression and Their Underlying Mechanisms - Essay Example Alcohol has been found to be a primary risk factor in oral SCC.5 Other factors include tobacco consumption, genetic predisposition, viral infection, and denture related factors.2, 6, 7 The process of oral carcinogenesis is a multifactorial and multistep process occurring when epithelial cells are exposed to genetic alterations.8 Complex molecular changes associated with oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes (TSG), and other factors underlie the development and progression of oral cancer. A study of these molecular mechanisms is vital in order to better diagnose and detect oral cancer related alterations that are often invisible under a microscope.8 The present paper outlines some of the molecular changes that are believed to contribute to oral cancer progression. The mechanisms underlying some of these molecular changes are also discussed. II. Progression of Oral Cancer The pathological progression of cancer takes place when normal cells are transformed to pre-malignant cells and then to malignant cells through the accumulation of mutations.9 The progression of oral cancer from dysplasia to the stage of metastasis is associated with multistage pathologic changes caused by molecular alterations.10 The pathologic phenotypes involved in cancer progression include increase in cell proliferation, horizontal spread and survival, which are associated with molecular changes such as altered expression of molecules such as p53 that regulate cell cycle, altered growth factor response, altered protein metabolism and synthesis, and cell immortality associated with telomerase.10 The progression of oral cancer may also be attributed to other molecular changes that lead to the overproduction of growth factors, increase in the number of cell surface receptors, alterations in transcriptional factors and signal messengers, etc.8 III. Molecular Changes Contributing to the Progression of Oral Cancer As already stated, the progression of oral cancer occurs as a result of multistep genet ic alterations resulting from molecular changes. The normal functioning of the oncogenes and TSGs is altered due to which there is an increase in the production of growth factors, transcription factors, intracellular signal messengers and/or number of cell surface receptors.11 These alterations lead to phenotypic changes in the cell, which facilitate cell proliferation and suppress cell cohesion, subsequently enabling the infiltration of malignant cells.11 McGregor et al. have shown that the initial stages of oral cancer progression from the dysplasia stage are associated with loss of the expression of (RAR)-? retinoic acid receptor, loss of expression of p16 cell cycle inhibitor, mutations in p53, and an increase in the levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA.12 There is an increase in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor after the dysplasia sta
Friday, August 23, 2019
Critically Evaluate One Approach to Organisational Culture Change - Essay Example ) is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called Ã¢â¬ËGoods and Services ClassifierÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËInternational Classifier of InventionsÃ¢â¬â¢ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of YandexÃ¢â¬â¢s technology. Later, in 1993, Yandex was developed as a Russian language search mechanism by CompTek (Yandex-a, 2011). Finally, in 1997, Yandex.ru website was launched. Gradually, the Russian search engine, Yandex.ru started bringing new developments and advanced services backed with innovative technologies. During 2000, it started running commercial advertisements through its search engine websites sites which turn to be a major source of sales revenues for the company. Currently, Yandex has become a major search engine for Russian speaking people. After the tremendous response from the domestic market, the company also decided to expand its market internationally. Hence, it starte d its new division in California, known as, Ã¢â¬ËYandex LabsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Vish Makhijani, the former executive of Yahoo is head of this division with the responsibility of business development in American market. YandexÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational goal revolves around its core operational activities and its mission i.e. to offer high quality services to its customers. In order to meet this objective, Yandex aims to develop an innovative workplace which leads to enhance the labour productivity. In this process, self-management, goal sharing and loyalty form employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ end are vital criteria. Company Analysis of Yandex In order to indentify YandexÃ¢â¬â¢s internal strengths and weaknesses, internal analysis of the company is very necessary. Yandex is internet solutions and search engine provider in Russia and other international... This paper deals with a case study of Yandex which is a popular and leading search engine provider. Yandex is a Russia-based company and provides internet and other related services. During 1990, the Arcadia Inc is one of the major telecom equipment and networking distributors in Russia, started two informational search system called Ã¢â¬ËGoods and Services ClassifierÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËInternational Classifier of InventionsÃ¢â¬â¢ and these two systems was the foundation for the development of YandexÃ¢â¬â¢s technology. This paper has focused on the organisation development intervention for the Yandex, a popular Russian search engine providing company. Technology is the base of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic framework, organisation and corporate culture. In order to develop a growth oriented organisation, the company focuses on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom for motivating and for encouraging their mind to think innovative ideas. However, for incorporating better changes in organisation development, Yandex must needs to follow a comprehensive OD intervention strategy. In this process, it can follow the model given in figure 3 for bringing positives changes in its organisation culture. However, at first, it must identify and determine key objectives. The objectives for Yandex must include improvements of services by increasing the organisational performances and enhancement of customer satisfaction. In order to achieve these objectives, Yandex must follow a set of guiding principles. In other terms, these principles are the tools for incorporating changes.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Riordan Manufacturing Security Essay Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ was hired by Riordan Manufacturing management to overhaul the security features currently employed by the company. Management outlined a comprehensive plan that included a complete hardware refresh, security best practices and end user training. Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ will devote resources to assess the physical and network security issues and concerns at each Riordan plant. Once those have been identified, Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ will identify the data security issues and concerns present at each Riordan plant. Finally, Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ will address web security issues and concerns present at each Riordan plant and recommend a way forward for the company. Riordan Manufacturing Background Riordan Manufacturing is a global plastics manufacturer employing 550 people with projected annual earnings of $46 million. The company is wholly owned by Riordan Industries, a Fortune 1000 enterprise with revenues in excess of $1 billion. Its products include plastic beverage containers produced at its plant in Albany, Georgia, custom plastic parts produced at its plant in Pontiac, Michigan, and plastic fan parts produced at its facilities in Hangzhou, China. The companys research and development is done at the corporate headquarters in San Jose. Riordans major customers are automotive parts manufacturers, aircraft manufacturers, the Department of Defense, beverage makers and bottlers, and appliance manufacturers (Riordan Manufacturing, 2013). Each site manages their network that communicates directly with the corporate office in San Jose. The three outlying sites do not communicate with each other without going directly through the corporate office. This is the biggest change Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ will propose. Communications between the four networks should be real time and should be linked. Physical Security ConcernsÃ The initial review of the physical security of the Riordan Manufacturing Network identified some major concerns: * Single point of failure The three outlining networks run through the corporate office in order to share information. If the corporate office is down, then the information from the other three offices cannot be shared. * Lack of Redundancy The networks currently only have one path out. For instance, if the gateway/switch at the Hangzhou, China plant goes down, the various departments running off that switch will be isolated from the rest of the network. Communication Barrier Communication between the three US bases sites with the Hangzhou site could pose some challenges. Ensure the physical security policies employed in the United States are also allowed in China. * Facility Security There was not much mention of the physical security aspects that are employed at each site. Recommend doing a comprehensive review of the physical security of each complex and recommend security features to each distinct location. Highly recommend the corporate office shift to a common access card (CAC) entry to the facility. Backups Ã¢â¬â Did not see a backup plan. Ensure backups are conducted daily and the off-site copies are maintained. Network Security Concerns The Network security aspects of our review are aligned with most of what was identified with the physical concerns. There are additionally items that identified that need to be addressed: * Language. The three US site networks will have to be able to receive data through the Chinese network (Compatibility issue). Ensure that the US based networks are able to receive and process Chinese code/language. Security Policy Ã¢â¬â Ensure that the strict policies enforced on the three US based networks will be compliant in China. The Chinese government has strict restrictions on information access. Need to ensure Chinese security policies are followed and that company information is not compromised. * Single point of failure Ã¢â¬â As addressed in the physical security, the networks as constructed have various single points of failure. If a switch or router goes down, the whole network is isolated from conducting business. Different Operating Environments Most of the company is running on Windows 7 environment, however, MAC PROÃ¢â¬â¢s are being used at the corporate office and this could lead to some compatibility issues between Windows and MAC environments. * Obsolete equipment Ã¢â¬â Many of the sites are using old network equipment. Recommend investing in new switches and routers to enhance the processing and network speed. Conclusion Team Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ has identified numerous areas of concern with the Riordan networks. Those items will be address individually at each location and be submitted in a comprehensive review.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Toyota Philosophy of Kaizen In the bend of the seventies, the scientific management (Taylorism and Fordism) appears in gap growing, out of step with the new standards of the society. Henceforth markets require diversified and reliable (even individualized!) products. That implies flexibility, reactivity, innovation. These constraints require the implication, the motivation, the versatility, the initiative and the ability to react from the employees, to the detriment of strict submission and obedience. A new logic of production (adaptation of the productive system to the requirements of the market) was required: Toyotism appeared. Toyota Motors Corporation is today the largest vehicle manufacturer in the world. Toyotas success is due to two mains techniques created by Taiichi OHNO (1912-1990), a former president of Toyota in order to compete with the American car industry (Ford particularly). He invented the TPS: Toyota Production System, also named Toyotism and the JIT: just in time. This model was implemented by Toyota since 1962. Those working organization forms were then broadcasted to the USA and Europe. First we will define what is Toyotism, then we will study the evolution of the Toyotism forms and finally, we will see how Toyotism lead to Toyotas management today. About Toyotism Major principles Toyotism has two major principles: the just in time system and the autonomation system. The just in time system which means production in just in time conditions contributes to eliminate inventory. Indeed, stocks are very expensive for the company because it is necessary to conserve goods in perfect shape in huge buildings. Indeed, some goods require a special preservation system which can also be very costly. You also need to pay for storage building. Moreover, the produced goods have generated costs (especially in a country like Japan were space is limited), that are not compensated by sales. More precisely, inventory reduction relies on the Kanban method that consists in producing when demand manifests itself. We start from the command sent to the company to go back upstream to the fabrication level. Thus, it is the final consumer that launches production. Production is then said to be in tight management or in tense flows, contrary to Fordism. Indeed, thanks to just in time (the approach of continuous and forced problem solving via a focus on rapid throughput and reduced inventory), products or raw materials necessary to production arrive when and where they are needed. No more waste and no more delays, so it reduces costs! Thus, the JIT production helps reducing cost by eliminating waste, removing variability and improving throughput. Autonomation (= autonomy + automation) or auto-activation is the second Toyotism principle. The kaizen perfectly describes the principle of continuous improvement of the system. The kaizen is the principle of empowerment of the teams to define standard durations of production and to divide up the diverse manufacturing operations of a product, in order to work more effectively and faster. Empowerment is based on the despecialisation and on the flexibility of the workers. For instance, simple and cheap stop devices are equipped on machines, which allow the supervision of several machines by the same operator. In case of a breakdown or a defect, the worker stops the assembly chain and tries to solve the problem himself. Thus, the employee has to be versatile and qualified enough. Machines are more automated and workers are more autonomous! They improve the human aspect of autonomation. A new working organization form Through those two innovations: the just in time system and the autonomation system, Toyotism aims at obtaining the 5 zeros, also qualified as Lean Production in USA. The Toyotism method consists in reducing production costs, avoid overproduction, reduce delays and produce the best quality possible. So the five conditions are: 0 delay (Just in time production. This method consists in waiting for the commands before producing but they need to be very reactive.) 0 stock (No overproduction so no inventory cost.) 0 paper (No intern paperwork and hierarchy weakening.) 0 default (No good has to be faulty, so as to avoid reparation costs and to satisfy the client) 0 weakening (Thanks to a regular and rigorous maintenance, machines have no defect.) Any activity or decision that does not add value in the customers mindÃ is considered a waste. Indeed, it is the customer who defines the value of the product. Waste reduction is an effective way to increase profitability. Therefore, Taiichi Onho identified seven categories of wastes: Overproduction (as seen above, overproduction requires inventoryÃ which is a waste of money) Waiting (idle time, storage and waiting are wastes: indeed, if an employee has to queue for his material to start working, you pay him at doing nothing but waiting! Also if a good is neither being transported nor being processed, it is waiting and a good kept waiting is a good that is not being sold, so its a good that does not generate revenue.) Transportation (every time you move a product, you take the risk that it can be damaged or lost or delayed. Moreover, transportation is expensive and it is a real cost that does not add a special value to the product.) Inventory (inventory represents an outlay because your raw materials, work-in-progress (WIP), or finished goods are not producing any income or added value.) Motion (unnecessary movements of equipment or people) Defective products (new extra costs are incurred when your products are faulty: you have to face returns, warranty claims.Sometimes you are also obliged to change all the components or to reschedule the whole production! Defects are a waste of time and money.) Overprocessing (doing work that adds no value in the eye of the customer, or using very precise, complex and expensive manufacturing machines when they are not necessary, is a waste.) To sum up, Toyotism principles are the continuous improvement of the processes (kaizen) by the engineers of production and by the operators themselves, and a production running downstream. Indeed, the buyers orders are given to the production center then executed. It authorizes a lot of flexibility and eliminates stocks; the production that is made in tense flows. Toyotism combines the principles of versatility and autonomy of the operators to improve the productive efficiency. Toyotism seems to reconcile productivity and efficiency, and considering the human factor, to propose richer and more developed tasks. But all these aspects require to produce quickly very diverse cars of excellent quality. Thus, it is important to determine a work organization that can reconcile speed, flexibility and quality. Indeed, despite of its evident successes, Toyotism is today disputed by the workers themselves. It seems that productivity gains in the Japanese factories were obtained by a stress management, it is to say by a tension, a permanent pressure from executives and engineers on the workers. Finally, the employees implication and motivation is obtained by stress. Evolution of Toyotism Toyotism dissent Inquiries on the working conditions have highlighted that the application of the Toyotism, far from leading to self-fulfillment of the workforce, was, on the contrary, translated into work intensification. Indeed, the work is often less repetitive than in the past and certain painful physical tasks were able to be mechanized, but other constraints have appeared. The production running downstream means that the production has to react to the requests of the clients. In a company such as Toyota, these requests are obviously indirect: they express themselves through the variety of the production in answer to the demand of the distributor. As an example, Toyota factories can build eight different models on the same production line and the company proposes 60 different models in Japan, without counting the specific versions in the production units outside Japan. The subcontracted parts, such as seats are ordered to the supplier once the car has entered the production line, and are delivered in a few hours. So the deadline constraint is intensified by the production in tense flows. Previously, the operators negotiated their rhythm or their working time with the Direction. In the new organization, it ensues from interactions with the clientele. A commercial constraint is added to the industrial constraint. The impact of the work organization is increased by the use of information and communication techniques which deepen the commercial constraint. For example, the devices of traceability allow the customer to know at any time at what stage is his order is, and who deals with it! More and more employees have standards and deadlines to meet, in order to answer quickly to the demand requirements. Besides the extension of the work under cadence, we observe an increase of the repetitive work. The versatility consists, for an operator, to perform several successive elementary operations of a manufacturing line. So the versatility remains confined in elementary tasks: the worker must be able to adapt himself to the new simple and repetitive tasks imposed to him. It corresponds more to a flexibilisation of the tasks than to an enrichment. The polyactivity doesnt imply an important increase of the qualification of the operator: the autonomy is to be put into perspective. Furthermore, the part of the individual decision-making in the daily activities of the operator remains very limited. All these arguments can explain why the workforce quickly contested Toyotism: improving this new production logic was imperative. New forms of Toyotism In order to answer and react to the growing dispute and to be more productive, Toyota developed and improved new working organization forms. These innovations are implemented differently depending on the production site. Quality circles Quality circles are meetings held outside working hours and on a voluntary basis, to solve certain problems and perfect the production process. Its a workgroup consisting of operators and executives, established around the kaizen activities, which covers questions of quality, maintenance, safety, cost price. Besides, it allows to defuse conflicts, which are sources of losses for the company. By favoring the communication between the employees, through regular meetings, the mobilization and the motivation of the employees are increased, and the quality of products improves. The post rotation It consists of a workforce rotation on the various posts of the same assembly chain, to break the dullness of the work. However, the rotation did not really become widespread, probably because not so much needed by the company. The task extension It consists in grouping together various tasks for the same workstation. The task extension contributes to limiting the horizontal division of the work. The task enrichment It consists in improving the workers motivation by augmenting the interest of their work, by adding for example tasks considered more developing such as the control, the maintenance The tasks enrichment contributes to limiting the vertical division of the work. The participative management It consists in associating the employees to the process of decision regarding the organization of the daily work, the evolution of the results The management by objectives The superiors assign objectives to their subordinates, without defining precise modalities, and they will be evaluated on the difference between the objectives and the obtained results. The semiautonomous teamwork It consists in constituting a group of workers whose members are in charge of defining by themselves the working modalities allowing them to reach the company objectives. This mode of organization relies on the auto-organization and the self-regulation of the group, because the group is collectively responsible for the production. During the 70s, Toyotism was seen as the key to assert in competition. Indeed, the decline of costs, the productivity and quality improvements were more organizational innovations than technological innovations. But the functioning conditions of Toyotas productive organization cannot be pushed farther, in particular as regards the tension on the flows of supply and on the working strength: the intensity of the work cannot be any more increased! Management in Toyota today Management development and learning organizations Since the 80s, the set up system meets certain limits (seen above) and, confronted with new elements such as the decline of the dollar and the increase of the yen, as well as the sourness of the international competition, Toyota had to opt for new strategies. Thus, Toyota adopted an offensive strategy but also a defensive strategy. The defensive strategy consists in favoring a policy of internationalization of the production. Major principles are that products, production centers and management must be adapted to the working local conditions. Furthermore, the local profits must be reinvested locally. Nowadays, Toyota really focuses on understanding the consumer needs and his wants. As an example, today, most of Toyotas plants are outside Japan. They implanted their manufactures where the demand was, in order to better to satisfy it and to reduce transportation costs. Moreover, transportation does not add any value that the customer is eager to pay for. Instead, the customer is willing to pay the product less, whereas, because of transportation, the price increases. This is a concrete example of Toyotas new management. Toyota can easily satisfy the demand because Toyota is where the demand is. The offensive strategy consists in looking for a diversification in production. As an example, a branch of Toyota dashed into Research Development and into electronic production (integrated circuits). In the book Toyota Way written by Jeffrey Liker, 14 management principles are identified. According to the author, those principles make Toyota the worlds greatest manufacturer. Become a Learning Organization is one of these principles. Its possible to summarize Toyotas learning organization in three key elements:Ã Identify root causes and develop countermeasures. By asking the question why as many times as possible, Toyota determines the root cause of a problem. Use Hansei: responsibility, self-reflection, and organizational learning. Hansei is a concept that Toyota uses as a practical improvement tool like Kaizen: improvements are fed back into the organization and then disseminated. Utilize policy deployment (Hoshin Kanri) This method consists in fixing strategic goals, measuring todays success and planning the future: Toyota wants measurable and concrete objectives. Toyota has well understood that the learning by the practice (learning by doing) allowed every car to be more effectively produced than the previous one. The learning by the practice is the increase of the knowledge bound to the exercise of the productive activity. The continual evolution of the organization is justified for any complex process because the problems and the ideal solutions do not appear immediately at the stage of the conception of the process of production; it is also the consequence of the adaptation to the market. Toyotas culture: the Toyota way The Toyota Way describes the promoted values that comprises Toyotas culture and guides the daily decision making of its employees. It rests on 2 fundamental pillars: Challenge: seeing problems as challenges will help improving the global performance. Kaizen: continuous improvement which is embedded in the belief that employees should come to work each day with the goal of becoming better than the day before. Genchi Genbutsu: going to the source to find the factors that can help make the best decisions, build consensus and achieve goals. As an example, a solution is easily built around arguments based on facts rather than relying on hearsays. Respect: expressing different opinions in ways that respect others, emphasizing everyone for their skills and knowledge, trying to understand and listen to each other, building mutual trust Teamwork: sharing knowledge, maximizing individual and team performance, putting the firms interest before individual interests. The goal of such an organization is to match people with tasks that inspire them and that best utilize their abilities. It is also to design tasks and strategies that can cope with environmental demands and opportunities. The firms culture should reinforce these efforts. One of the reasons Toyota has been so successful for so many years is the alignment among these aspects. Toyotas culture is very strong and it is a real strength for the company, the Toyota way will hopefully help sustain their success in the future: until today, no other company could have the same specific culture. Toyota tries to combine adaptation and quality within an organization leading to qualification. Conclusion Toyota was a formerly small company that outwitted bigger competitors to become the worlds largest automaker, thanks to the philosophy of continuous improvements. The expectation of this philosophy is that empowered employees will work with a committed management to build systems that respond to customers with ever-lower cost and higher quality. Their current success in not their final achievement, they are never satisfied and always want to improve their actions. Toyota wants to discover and improve better alternatives, rethink their accomplishments, investigate future possible successes: they commit to improve continuously!
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Impact Of Vastu Shastra On Architecture Shelter is one of the basic needs for Human beings. People spend much of their time in their homes. Therefore comfort and environmental conditions are important aspects of a house. However in contemporary India this ancient practice is being termed as myth or occult by the majority .Still this practise proves to be extremely popular with contemporary clients, who insist on their house being built and designed as per vastu shastra. This thesis deals with the relevance of Vastu Shastras fundamental rules of architecture which are based on now proven scientific facts to todays architectural and interior design practices. The aim is to prove that Vastu Shastra has a scientific background with a practical application and is not just a superstition .The purpose is to clear the fears in the mind of the people about the misconception of Vastu Shastra and its tenets, the fear created by consultants by threats of destruction, death, disease and miserable life Therefore, knowing and applying the rules of Vastu Shastra would be extremely beneficial for any modern day Architect and/or Interior Designer in India. The thesis contains four chapters. The first chapter introduces Vastu Shastra and its rules governed by the various elements of nature .This chapter discusses the history and the present of Vastu shastra in India. The second chapter discusses the occult aspect of Vastu .It is an attempt to reason out why people have an impression of Vastu as a superstition and to enlighten and encourage the reader to study Vastu Sastra with an open mind and demystify its occult garb. The third chapter puts forward various issues dealing with environmental relevance of Vastu Shastras rules and their scientific backgrounds. It reveals two important aspects of the relevance of solar energy and geomagnetic energy with Vastu .The first part displays the vector analysis of the varying directional solar energy field as implored on stationary geomagnetic flux. The second part explains the correlation between the movement of the sub atomic paticles and the electromagnetic flux. The fourth chapter discusses an ideal Vastu layout and also presents a case study of a contemporary project with the application of vastu rules and brief statements of the inmates confirming their wellness in a Vastu based residence. Chapter 1.Vastu Shastra in India Vastu Shastra is an ancient building science that governed the Indian architecture in the vedic times. Vastu means building and Shastra means the science so in essence it is the building science. It explains the basis of creating spaces in respect to its surrounding. Vastu Shastra originated around 3000 BC. It was first mentioned in the ancient Hindu scriptures like Rig Veda, Mahabharata etc. In primitive India, education, medication, horoscopy, astrophysics, occultism, metaphysics and religiousness lived in complaisant proximity, their borders superimposing and one enhancing the other. The rules of Vaastu Shastra and environmental reflections in residential buildings were established considering the cosmic influence of the Sun, wind direction, magnetic field of the earth and the impact of cosmos on the Earth. House building design, including its internal and external environment, has customarily been the duty of the architects. Vastu Shastra scriptures were scribed in the olden days when architecture was essentially for the rulers, the nobles and for the divine structures. The fundamental architectural Rules namely climate, orientations, functions, planning, etc are now being overlooked by the architects and designers. Especially in India, the very fact of buying and owning a house is considered as a sign of high class belonging to community and status in the society. Considering environmental factors in buildings is as old as the architecture, the Vaastu and the Vedic Era . With the guidelines of Vastu Shastra the architects can design buildings in such a way that it will bring good health, wealth and peace to the inmates. Man builds the city so that the city shall build its dwellers. () The upcoming occupation of architecture has outcast the Vaastu Vidya or the customary Indian wisdom of architecture. Vaastu Shastra is as aged as knowledge itself, but the practise of the Vaastu Consultants is a fairly new and modified, it addresses only a part of this science. It is time Vaastu Shastra is made free of its mysterious guise and exhibited as a rational and judicious branch of knowledge. Vaastu Shastra is futhermore distinguished by the Vaastu Pundits'(experts) and is termed as The Edifice Science (implication of the rules of this science while designing a building will assuredly bring peace and prosperity to its occupiers) Vastu Shastra has been acknowledged as a science derived from the study of nature and the supernatural by the prehistoric Aryan sages. Vastu Shastra takes into account the influences of the sun, ts light and heat.It considers the impacts of earths electromagnetic field, bio-chemical effects in a human body, in order to lead a healthy and prosperous life. Advanced study in neuro-science has proved that the Sun, the Moon, Planets which are the Cosmic counter-parts, have a one-to-one relevance to the various fragments of the human brain . Hence, the Vedic formula for the orientation of the dwelling towards the east to achieve the benefits of the morning sun and a perfect house ,a square with a cental open space to avoid the scorching afternoon sun. Various ailments like insomnia,cerebral palsy,hypertension,etc experienced healing in th past 15 years with the help of Environmental energy much before it was acclaimed by the scholars of today through the study of Matsya, Mansaraand many more epics and were recognised and acknowledged as science for example the military science Dhanur-Vidya The profession of the designer or the architect is absolutely mistaken with the role of the astrologer. Traditionally the Indian Architecture was acknowledged as unique and was not subject to be analysed by the western examples. The fundamental rules of Vastu Shastra are based on two important aspects 1.The five natural elements sky, air, fire, water and earth and 2. The eight cardinal directions North, South, East ,West, North East ,North West, South East, South West. Fundamental concepts of Vastu Shastra The whole universe is made up of the five basic elements sky, air, fire, water and earth. According to Vastu Shastra a perfect balance of these elements can enhance the living conditions. 1.The Five elements of the Nature The science of Vastu Shastra considers the world to be comprised of five basic elements termed as Panch Mahabhoota Vastu Pundits (experts) believed Presence of Life on earth is a result of the balance of these five elements which are present on Earth.which is now proven by the modern world scientists.( BBC,OPEN SCIENCE.,2010 Final Frontier[online].The open university.Available from:http://www.open2.net/science/finalfrontier/life/why.ht[Accessed 01 August 2010) Following are the five basic elements of the nature. BHUMI (EARTH)- The position of Earth ,is third in order from the sun. Presence of electromagnetism makes it a large magnet in the space with the North Pole and the South Pole as centers of attraction.Every living and Non living organism on Earth is influenced by its magnetic field and Gravitational pull. JALA (Water)-Water is in a liquid form and is represented by rain,ocean,sea, and river.It forms a portion of every flora and fauna.Haemoglobin in combination with oxygen forms blood which runs in our bodies. VAYU (Air)- Air is considered as the foundation of life and is a supreme source of life. The comfort value of human beings is directly dependant on the balanced humidity, temperature, pressure, flow and the composition of the air and its contents. AGNI (Fire) -Fire is symbolised by light and heat which forms an indispensable part of day and night ,climatic conditions,radioactivity,avidity,energy and vigor AKASHA (Space) The space or the sky shelters all the elements of nature.It is the primary conductor of all the sources of energy for example light, sound,social energies namely emotional and psychological and cognitive energies namely intuition and intellect. There is an unseen relationship amongst all the above five elements. Thus various human conditions can be improved by considering the effectiveness of these five basic natural forces while designing the buildings.The role of Vastu Shastra is to combine these elements of nature and balance them with the man and the matter. Taking advantage of the gifts bestowed by the nature to make a pleasant living and working conditions thereby promoting spiritual well-being and enhancing healthand wealth leading to prosperity and happy living The eight cardinal directions Vastu takes into consideration the eight possible directions after analysing and studying the four coordinal and angular directions. coordinal directions- North, South, East and West angular directions North East, NorthWest, SouthEast, SouthWest In Vastu studies these directions are established with the help of a tool called the Vastu compass which is a magnetic compass. The building site is first analysed with this tool and later inscribed on the layout to start the process of designing taking in consideration the Vastu principles. Vastu affirms that it helps one to tune with nature and derive its free benefits by honouring the five basic elements and the eight cardinal directions. Chapter 2: The Occult aspect of Vastu There are three important factors that influence the misconception of Vastu Shastra. 1.Personal Motives of the consultants Human mind has always been intrigued by the Occult and the supernatural. In a lot of cases the beliefs and faiths of common people have been wrongly used and abused. It is therefore important to understand when and where should one draw the line .This fear of being a victim to such immoral practices by some Vastu consultants who do not understand the subject but scare people for their advantage has created an unbelief of Vastu Shastra in India. The purpose of this chapter is to clear the fears in the mind of the people about the misconception of Vastushastra and its tenets, the fear created by consultants by threats of destruction, death, disease and miserable life. The truth is that the original Vastu script is lost and all modern available text are only compilation, this has made Vastu a victim of unscrupulous interpretation. 2.Mythological Stories Moreover the terminology used by the ancient scholars while explaining the scientific laws of Vastu Shastra also gaves rise to the superstitious aspect of its understanding. In the ancient times, the Vedas ,or the knowledge, was limited to a particular cast of people, which is why it was difficult for a common person to understand the principles of this science, if explained in a scientific way. The wise ones used the terminology which was easy for the common man to understand so for example ,when the scholars had to say that by constructing a window in a particular direction, one can make the most of the early morning sun rays, they would rather say that by placing the window in a particular direction the deity of that direction will bless them with good health and prosperity. Consequently Vastu in India is treated as a religious duty more than an art of construction, which leads to the misunderstanding of its concepts. The problem starts when Vastu Shastra is mixed up with religious rituals.The wisemen of yesteryears infused religion in Vastu so that people will implement it and practise it in the fear of the supernatural but today it has been been misjudged and wrongly accused in the name of religion and occultism. Indian mythology tells stories of the deity of Foundation Vastu Purusha. The stories in the Vedas also have a important role to play in the misconception of Vastu Shastra.There is an Fascinating story about the Vastu Purushain the Matsya Purana. According to the Vedas , Vaastu Purusha is omnipresent in all the plot irrelevant to its size. It lays on the plot with its head down and his body folded in a peculiar fashion in order to cover the length and the width of the plot. During his battle with the demons,Lord shiva got tired and started sweating too much and out of his drops of sweat a cruel looking hungry man was born who began to make penance to appease the deity.Lord shiva finally was pleased with him and granted him his wish to be the strongest and largest being on Earth.He then stood between the Earth and the heavens.Terrified by this devotee the deities and the demons together pinned him down to the earth. Pitying his state Lord Shiva blessed him and made him the God of Vastu and called him the Vastu Purusha. Since then it is believed that the being is present in every plot with the deities and the demons acquiring and ruling different positions on his body . People listen and believe in such stories and overlook the science of Vastu .They do not probe into the details of Vastu science and term it as a myth. Moreover since the knowledge of Vastu was passed down from generation to generation, it has been modified and more and more stories are weaved around it to make it sound more mythological. However ancient Indian scholars were great mathematicians and also had the knowledge of geology this is shown in the next chapter , which explains the rational and practical aspect of Vastu. 3.Contemporary Phase of Vastu in India Today new flats and apartments in newly constructed buildings are rejected if they are not built according to the Vastu concepts. Infact if your building is designed with the help of a Vastu Consultant then it becomes a USP to sell the Flats in certain parts of India! Amusingly some buyers come with a Vastu Consultant to check if it suits their personal needs before making the decision of buying the house of their dreams. This forces the builders to employ Vastu consultants without checking the depth of your knowledge and use them as an added tag to sell their Flats who inturn mislead the customers into buying the flats. Chapter 3 Environmental relevance and scientific approach to Vastu. In this chapter I will try to delineate the traditional narrations in terms of basic laws, logic and approach of particle physics, biochemistry and energy dynamics. For correlating the significance of directions and forces in Vastu the following topics are very significant: flow charachteristics of solar energy, geomagnetic, flux, thermal variations. Part 1.Solar radiation and its effects Whenever a structure is created it is exposed to the effects of the suns radiations. In tropical countries the south side suffers harsh heat while the north side remains in the shadow area this results in the formation of thermocouple in the space and around the house. In the tropical countries South, South East and Southwest suffer scorching heat while the North .North east and Northwest remain in the cool shadow section. It can be summarised that disturbance is created due to the high imbalance in the natural order of the geometric flux lines, (flux is defined as the amount of electromagnetic energy that flows through a unit area per unit time) forming nodes at the intersection of the flux lines.These nodes are points of distorted energy potential.Such dislocations trap the sub atomic particles travelling along the flux lines.These particles start resonating under specific conditions and off hazardous micro level radiation. These emissions have a tendency of working against the exi stence of life forms. Vastu-purush-mandal represents this phenomenon as Yama'(Lord of Death). The thermal imbalance is the main cause in creating obstacles in smooth energy flow through and around the building. The comprehensive remedial measures available in vastu shastra try to equalise the thermal difference and provide harmonious and blissful conditions for the dweller. The wise men of the past understood this and tried to derive a solution to offset the disturbance in the south direction by the following measures. 1. Thick heavy wall on the south side 2. Blocking of the openings in the south side 3. Avoiding any slopes towards the south 4.Orienting the house in such a manner that more open spaces are available in the North and East directions 5. By Planting some trees in the South for availing of humid atmosphere. 7.Raising of plinth and compound height in the south direction. If adhered to these rules one can try to create equalise the thermal differentials and create harmonious and balanced living conditions within the structure. Part 2.Directions and Deities The four main directions namely North, South, East and West represent streams of positive and negative energies .These directions act as either the source or the sink for energies. Hence the orientation and alignment of these forces are prearranged in their zones of impact. Whereas the sub directions vis-a-vis North East, South East, North West and South West represent zones of confluence of two different (positive and negative)energy streams which are at right angles to each other. Any disturbance in the flow of these energies triggers turbulence in the flow of the energy which is aligned to the primary direction. The Vastu Pundits combined the positive north and east directions with the negative south and West to determine the effects of the sub . These directions were then associated with positions of the deities depending on the results of the effects of the energies. North East + + residence of God North west + desirable direction SouthEast + Not desirable direction South West residence of Demon Part 3.Scientific Approach to Vastu. Below we will examine several examples which strongly stand for the fact that Vastu Shastra is based on solid scientific evidence and can be beneficial to the human race. The following Vastu Shastra rules can be easily misunderstood without a rational explanation. Rule 1.Each direction has a Presiding deity .Since Wealth God rules the North and the Sun God Aditya rules East direction, the window openings of the house and also the placement of the water tank should be in the North East direction to welcome the lord, who will then be pleased and will bless you with the healthy and prosperous life The scientific explanation to the above statement is as follows. The sun rises in the East and hence the suns rays emit more light and less heat .Sun rays in the morning are a rich source of vitaminD, which are A vital component in formation of healthy bone . Water is disinfected by UV rays, as the genetic material is altered in bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, which destroys the harmful microorganisms example E. Coli.(Hwaa irfan,2001). If UV exposure is dozed carefully, it has protective effects against cancer (Severn,2001 p.1). Various diseases are cured using the UV radiations, for example rickets, psoriasis, eczema and jaundice. So when one has openings in their house towards the East direction, it allows the early morning sun rays to enter the house and these are the ultra violet rays which when penetrate in the house and bestow their benefits keeping the inmates healthy and fit. A healthy and fit person can think and work more efficiently leading to a higher earning and a prosperous life. Now if the openings are created in the opposite direction, then it could be detrimental to the health, as the afternoon rays are the infra red rays, which are strong and harmful. Rule 2.The beds should be placed in such a way so as the head of the person should be in the south direction. As the deity of death resides in the south, so one should not face this direction while sleeping, as it invites death. The explanation to the above statement can be found in the earth magnetism. The earths magnetic field runs from South Pole to north pole ,so if you sleep in the same fashion then you are aligned with the magnetic flow .Now studies show that Human head and north are both positive poles (Ritu 1999)due to which they repel each other hence it is favourable to sleep with the head in the south for a sound sleep. Sleep disorder leads to a lot of health problems. This clearly proves that by adhering to the Vastu principles, one can make the most out of the natures gifts to human kind. Chapter 4.Contemporary Indian Architecture and Design Part 1.Ideal Vastu House In India a home is not just a shelter for human beings,it is called as Manushyalayawhich means human temple.As per Vastu both house and temple are sacred spaces so a house should be designed with the same concept as the temple. A house design with an open courtyard system was a national pattern of India before the introduction of the western concepts. The arrangement of the built spaces is the basis of creating a spiritual environment needed for the well being and prosperity. Figure shows an ideal layout of a perfectly square building with a superimposed modular Vastu grid of 9 x 9 forming 81 squares meant for a family. The centre space Brahmasthan is supposed to be the nuclear energy field which should be unbuilt and kept open to the sky to connect with the outer space Akasha. The central courtyard is not for the living purpose it can be used for cultural and religious rituals. The next row of squares adjacent to the centre space are to be used for a walkway and the corner squares are to used for the specific rooms. Following are the directions with the deity that presides them and the specific rooms to be built respectively. Direction Deity presiding the direction Suggested rooms North East Dharma(God of righteousness) Prayer room North Kubera (God of wealth) Living room North West Vayu (God of wind) Guest Bedroom,Toilet East Indra (God of Gods) Bathroom West Varuna (God of water) Childrens bedroom South Yama (God of Death) Store room South East Agni (God of Fire) Kitchen and dining room South West Niruthi (Goddess of demons) Master bedroom Part 2.Case study of a contemporary Vastu House Vastu House By Khosla Associates in Bangalore, India 24 July 2010, 09:18:05 | [emailprotected] (Aji Avarachan) The space planning in this house was designed in harmony with the Vastu orientation and placement concept called Vastu Purusha Mandala .To design within a dictated predetermined rigid locations specified as per Vastu yet to arrive at a visually stunning and aesthetic architecture was the biggest challenge of this project. Rising lazily from the North East which was the lowest point to South East which was the highest point of the house,it was built on soft split levels. The trees in the open courtyard are beautifully weaved in its linear horizontal and cantilevered roof .The massive stretch of glass blur the spatial boundaries between enclosed space of the house and the open space of the garden As one strolls down the open living spaces one can experience a sense of infinity, These spaces are divided with sliding bifold doors and certain spaces do not have any barrier at all. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqgZjkd8YI/AAAAAAAAB3E/lRqha1dttic/s400/Vastu-House-Exterior-Garden.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqgZBDhgjI/AAAAAAAAB28/6lfok3uwaR8/s400/Vastu-House-Exterior-Lighting.jpg All the main areas were positioned as per Vastu Shastra. The Master bedroom is located in the Earth Zone(SW),the location of the kitchen is in the fire zone(SE)and in the zone of water and air(N and NE) was placed the swimming pool.The main door was in the North East and the Childrens bedroom was in the West.Even the the position the staircase, the orientation of the bed, study table and wardrobe and position in the bathroom lavatories were designed in accordance of Vastu principles and the flow of the energy. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqfl5ptAoI/AAAAAAAAB20/MX0tibfborE/s400/Vastu-House-Exterior-Porch.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqflnORhYI/AAAAAAAAB2s/51Ig0JL_iJM/s400/Vastu-House-Exterior-Swimming-Pool.jpg The location of this house is strategically placed near a busy street,a small inhouse office for the Master of the house is positioned near the main road.The entrance to the office is covered by the canopy of some old trees one makes a way paving through them. These trees act as a visual barrier to the rushing traffic on the main road. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqflF84nqI/AAAAAAAAB2k/E5JlUp_3SME/s400/Vastu-House-Interior-Bathroom.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqfk0EofVI/AAAAAAAAB2c/0MyZ9stcYeg/s400/Vastu-House-Interior-Dining-Table.jpg The black steps which are carved from a local granite leads one from the spacious living room into the courtyard which is open to sky ,perched in the centre are some ornamental trees .The roof is cladded with local manglore tiles. The support for the roof are hand carved stone columns which are innovative and functional and carry the load of the roof through the diagonal steel struts. Taking advantage of the beautiful climate the dining table is placed in a semi-outdoor space http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_pblhNelRaPU/TEqfkmQMBcI/AAAAAAAAB2U/eF34iDqgcEQ/s400/Vastu-House-Interior-Livingroom.jpg The first floor which is accessed through a wooden staircase has a large siiting area with a fitness center. The bathroom has huge glass windows with lots of natural light leading to a massive walk in closet. There is an interesting amalgamation of luxury and Vastu exposed concrete ceiling with rough stone steps and court gravel with polished concrete floors contrast well with fine teak furniture, itlaian marble and silk and satin furnishings. The park looks interesting with the lap pool on side and on the other side a large rough cut log forming an outdoor dining table to dine under the shades of the giant banyan tree! This is a classic example to show that a house built with Vastu rules does not restrict the creativity of a designer instead presents a challenge to achieve the a spiritual atmosphere within a concrete beauty! Conclusion To sum up the argument of this dissertation, Vastushastra has fascinated some and irritated others but it has intrigued everybodyArchitect Bharat Gandhi. The first chapter explains the the laws of Indian architecture and clarifies its fundamental concepts.The second chapter explains the misconception of terming Vastu an occult by rational and scientific method.The third chapter throws light on the metaphysical aspect of Vastu Shastra The fourth chapter explains an ideal Vastu layout with the help of a case study. The building science has its presence all over the world in different forms and they all have their own principles.From Vitruvius theory to feng shui to Vastu shastra all the sciences from different part of the world but have the same message.The main purpose of building science is to lay down some guidelines for the architects to design building in harmony with the nature and taking advantage of the prevailing natural gifts of sunlight ,wind, cosmic energy to make a habitat which is beneficial to the inmates and make their life happy and prosperous.
Monday, August 19, 2019
CANDIDE By Voltaire Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Throughout Candide the author, Voltaire, demonstrates the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in a cruel world and his fight to gain happiness. In the beginning Candide expects to achieve happiness without working for his goal and only taking the easy way out of all situations. However, by the end of the book the character realized that to achieve happiness a lot of work, compromises, and sacrifices are necessary. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Candide is a person of privilege who began life in the Castle of Westphalia. While a part of the castle-life, Candide was taught by Dr. Pangloss. Pangloss is a philosopher who teaches there is a cause for all things and that everything is all for the good, even though a person may not understand it at the time. Suddenly, however, Candide is exiled from the privileged confines of the castle when he is caught kissing Cunegonde, the daughter of the Baron. Upon his exile Candide immediately begins to face adversities. Candide finds himself in the army simply because he is the right size. His life in the army is nothing but turmoil and hardship. Despite the misfortunes of army life, Candide continues to believe there is a cause and effect for all things. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After leaving the army, Candide once again is paired with his mentor Dr. Pangloss. Pangloss is now a diseased beggar. Pangloss is soon cured of his disease and he and Candide are befriended by a charitable Anabaptist. ...
The cries of joy were deafening as people gathered in the streets. People ran around hugging and kissing strangers. In a sense, the news was totally unexpected. Japan had just surrendered. VJ Day, as it is now called, produced great celebration. Everyone was relieved that we would not have to endure a bloody invasion of Japan. We would not have to sacrifice 200,000 more men to end the war. During the war, millions of lives were put on hold. Now that the war is over, people could start living their lives again. "The misery is behind us," they would say. "We have won the war." In reality, though, there are no winners in war; only losers. Even the "winners" are actually losers. Both sides in any conflict suffer losses. The question is not who won the most, but who lost the least. The "winners" of WWII suffered staggering losses. Even the U.S., which did not have its own homeland ravaged by the war, suffered great losses. Besides the $360 billion price tag ($3,578 billion in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dollars), there were 292,131 Americans killed (not to mention the 115,185 "non-battle deaths"). There were also 670,846 Americans wounded. This, of course, does not take into account the emotional toll of shattered lives and marriages. Yes, we "won" because we survived the war declared on us by Japan and Germany. Yes, we "won" because we saved the world from plummeting into a very dark and desperate era. Yes, we "won" because we saved over 100 million people from certain death and several hundred million people from oppression and torture. If Japan and Germany had not been defeated, the losses to America (and the rest of the world) would have been far more substantial. So, in comparison, we did "win." DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get me wrong; IÃ¢â¬â¢m not an anti-war protestor. I feel there is a definite need for a strong national defense. I feel it is important for our country to be able to defend herself. I also believe that there is the unfortunate need for the U.S. to defend the oppressed and defenseless of the world. Although I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the U.S. being the guardian of the world, there is a moral obligation to protect the defenseless when there is wholesale genocide and torture taking place. Of course, history has shown us there is a right way and a wrong way to intervene in foreign problems. The reason I bring this up is because we all have our own private "wars.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
To some people William Blake is just an ordinary man. To others, Blake is an English poet, painter, and engraver. Blake was born on November 28, 1757, in London, where he spent most of his life. He was the third of five children in his family. Blake's family was Nonconformists Protestant dissenters from the Church of England. They had Blake christened on December 11 at St. James's Church in Piccadilly. Blake's mother educated him in mere reading and writing, and he worked in a shop until the age of 14. His family ran this shop, and later his brother and he acquired the store through inheritance. Despite those misgivings, he taught himself Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and Italian. His English was to be often strikingly original through other people's eyes. In 1767, he wanted to become an artist at the young age of 10. In pursuit of this dream, he attended the Henry Pars Engraving School in the Strand. By 1772, he was an apprentice to an engraver, James Basire, who taught him the secr ets of the trade very well. Basire sent him to make drawings of the sculptures in Westminster Abbey, which sparked his interest in Gothic art. Blake's father was a hosier, and sent him to the Royal Academy in 1779 as an engraving student. While at school, Blake absorbed the religious symbolism and linear design characteristic of Gothic style. While studying there, he rebelled against the academic conventions of Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the academy. Contrary to modern standards, he decided to follow the footsteps of the world-renowned artist Michelangelo and Raphael instead. Throughout his life, Blake made his money engraving things, but lived in mass poverty. On August 18, 1782, Blake married a poor illiterate girl, Catherine Boucher. Some believe she turned out to be the best companion Blake could have chosen. Blake and Catherine never had children. In 1784, BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s father passed away after he started his own printing press. He took his brother Robert in to live with him as an assistant pupil to relieve him from the agonies of poverty. In Blake's eyes, Robert was his son. The establishing of the printing shop helped Blake and Catherine become financially secure for rest of their lives. From that point on, he lived as an engraver and illustrator with the help of his wife and brother Robert. Once again tragedy struck, and in 1787, only shortly after beginning work, his brother Robert fell ill and passed away.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Why was process of decolonization peaceful in some countries and violent in others? (Before Independence) Brief historical background of colonization? (Historical Context) * What ignited calls for independence from colonial rule in __________ (your country)? A: Elections were held in rural areas(small cities) for reform and democratization of local government. 1958 was a year of vigorous political discussion at issues of society in Belgian Congo. The whole turning point of their advocacy for independence was during January 4-6 in 1959. In January 4, a riot broke out in Leopoldville due to the fact that an Abako meeting had been banned.This abrupt disorder for two days as European shops were broken and burned with over 40 people killed. The administration had political concession meaning that Belgium handed over independence to Congo. On January 13, the administration released a statement that they would slowly change into independence. The nationalist urged the colonial government to have an early date for independence. From this statement, issues about the independence of Congo sprang quickly. Political parties made huge promises that were illogical in order to gain favor of the people.Some parties requested for a faster date while others thought of holding the situation slowly. The government slowly began to lose control of rural areas. The government feared of catastrophe, decided to decolonize as quick as possible. The Congolese leaders aimed for a five-year transition to independence but the Belgians enforced that the date of independence would be of 30 June 1960. According to The Making of Modern Africa, The first national elections held in May was looked as a disaster. After the end of World War 2, the Congo was able to participate in political issues. What methods did the Ã¢â¬Å"nationalistsÃ¢â¬ use to achieve independence? To what extent were these methods effective? How did the colonial nation respond to the effort of the nationalists? A: Patrice L umumba launched THE FIRST NATIONWIDE POLITICAL PARTY, the Congo National Movement in 1958. They caused outrages in order to erupt instability to the country. Huge riots were caused by the hunger for independence by the people of Congo. The Belgian authorities prohibited a political/cultural party named Ã¢â¬ËABAKOÃ¢â¬â¢ which was slowly gaining power in the lower part of Congo.This led to riots for a span of three days and the Belgian government announced that they would put more Congolese into the government (for moderate nationalists) at a small scale in hopes of satisfying the demands. (Made a promise of eventual independence to extreme nationalists). But suddenly there was a surge of political activity. The nationalistÃ¢â¬â¢s demand soon grew as fifty political parties were registered competing and Belgian Congo was beyond control of the Belgian administration. * When did _________ (your country) achieve independence? Who ended up in power? Transition) A: The Republic of Co ngo achieved independence on June 30, 1960. From January 18-27, 1960, an event known as the Ã¢â¬ËThe Roundtable ConferenceÃ¢â¬â¢ was held in Brussels. Different Congolese parties attended the meeting to discuss the transition into independence. There were two pivotal leaders, Joseph Kasa-Vubu as President and Patrice Lumumba as Prime Minister. To what extent were problems facing newly independent countries a legacy of colonial rule? * What was the condition of the country upon independence? (Identify problems) A: Coming from colonial rule, the Congolese had minimal knowledge to manage a huge country.Tribal leaders had more power than the government, which led them to have an unstable state. After the departure of the Belgium administration, there were barely any bureaucrats left in the country. The first Congolese graduate ever was only in 1956. The country was at a very unstable state with the power mostly to individual tribes separated from other tribes as well. (No unity) * W ere the problems a result of the colonial rulers? (Was it the fault of the colonial power? ) A: The Belgians considered Congo as a child meaning that both countries acted as a Ã¢â¬Ëparent and childÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship.This is called paternalism. The Belgians mainly supervised Congo and the Congo had no part in legislation. The Congolese only collected tax from the citizens. How could a child start working if he/she hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t had any education. This was the kind of situation in between Belgium and Congo. What ways did the Cold War complicate the process ofÃ decolonization and/or post-independence? * Did ideology or the US/USSR conflict play a role in the process to achieve independence OR create problems for countries after they achieved independence? (If so, how significant? A: The Congo Crisis was a period of disorder from 1960 Ã¢â¬â 1966. The Katanga province threatened to leave Congo because the Belgians were interested in business and there were over 6000 Belgian tro ops with most of the European population under the leadership of Moise Tshombe. The province was declared as the State of Katanga in July 11 1960. Patrice Lumumba went to Soviet Union for troops to enforce the Katanga province. Feeling afraid, President Kasa-Vubu requested help from the United States that turns this into a proxy war as well. The US saw this attempt to spread their ideology in sub-Saharan Africa.The U. S. therefore wanted to change the leader in The Republic of Congo. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of odd how Patrice Lumumba, the prime minister and President Kasa-Vubu who were both in the same parties already had arguments as soon as Congo gained their independence. Source Evaluation: http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/59224/Belgian-Congo First and foremost, this website is trustworthy due to their long history of releasing books with accurate facts. This huge company consists of about 100 editors and 4,4000 contributors who are professors, being an expert at their respec tive subjects.It is also regarded as one of the most academic encyclopedias of the English language. It has also received numerous awards meaning its value is high. This is a secondary source, which obtained sources from contributors and re-word. The purpose of this article is simply to inform everyone without any intent to persuade or convince a person as the audience is not targeted as well. The limitations in this article is unclear, coming from a website from an anonymous author without his nationality is hard to determine whether this article I biased or not.But this website is trustworthy enough not to input biased opinions. A historian would use this comfortably because Britannica is one of the most popular websites used by millions of people. Ã¢â¬Å"Belgian Congo (historical Region, Africa). Ã¢â¬ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n. d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. . Source List: Ã¢â¬Å"Africa: Belgian Colonies Ã¢â¬â HISTORY OF BELGIAN COLONIZATION, THE ADM INISTRATION OF CONGO BY THE BELGIANS (1908-1960). Ã¢â¬ Africa: Belgian Colonies. N. p. n. d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Belgian Congo (historical Region, Africa). Ã¢â¬ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n. d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Belgian Congo. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Feb. 2012. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Congo Crisis. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 May 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Decolonization of Africa. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Oct. 2012. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. . Ã¢â¬Å"Encyclop? dia Britannica. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 May 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. . As a class, we will be holding a seminar to discuss the questions above. In order to discuss these questions, you need to know how the process of decolonization worked in specific countries.As a group, choose one of the countries from the following list and begin research into the independence, decolonization, and colonial le gacy of that country Ã¢â¬â you can also suggest another country if you have a specific interest: Algeria, Angola-Mozambique, Congo, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re unsure where to start your research, consider some of these things: colonial history (who, what, when, why), the process of independence, problems faced by the new nation, type of government, reaction of the population to independence and the new nation.