Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Reflection Paper : Bunso (The Youngest) Essay

Bunso is a documentary film about three boys struggling to survive in an overpopulated jail somewhere in Cebu. The film showed three different stories of minor offenders named Tony short for Anthony, Diosel, and Bunso. This is a very heartbreaking film that can make you see the reality. When I was still eleven, I wake up and eat my breakfast prepared by my mother after that I play and sleep and play again. I complain because my clothes aren’t new I always demand for a new clothes to wear. When I’m sick, mom will give everything that can make me feel better, she will rush me to the clinic with her worried face. I felt bad, really bad I don’t have the right to complain because I am living the life that those kids are dreaming of. Anthony, a thirteen year old boy who has to find his own food for him and his siblings. No one will bother to give him money or food so he decided to just steal money/ jewerleys from the rich people. I felt really bad for him because his parents are always quarelling. His father who keeps on beating him up and his mother who is concerned for him but cannot do anything so she just drink all her problems. Diosel, aged eleven has to sing a song on the highways just for coins to surpass his hunger. I am very worried for him and his friends because they might be hit by a rushing car or worse trucks. Bunso, the neglected child that begs for the love of his family. Of all the three children, I feel worst for Bunso because his mother looks like she doesn’t even love him. His mother always promise to set him free from the jail but she never really cared to get him. At the young age he has to suffer all the hard things just to survive he should be studying for his future but he is at the jail living with the criminals unsure if he will be able to eat tomorrow. I can feel the pain, need, and anger of Bunso with his mother. He is in pain because he is living a hard life in the jail and is longing for his mother’s love and angry because of the way his mother have treated him. He is very angry and in pain that he said â€Å"You call yourself a mother?† I also remember he said that on his past birthday he didn’t even get a single penny from his mother. I am very sad because this hardship shouldn’t be experienced by a minor child I mean no one should  experience this kind of suffering. For me the main problem of the film is their parents. If you can’t even provide your children’s needs then you don’t deserve one! One prisoner said â€Å"Why do you have to born if you’ll just live like this and grow up criminals?† I strongly agree from what he said. Second one is education if only their parents have an education background they wouldn’t have to face hardships like this because they can have a decent job and provide their children’s needs. Children doesn’t fit in the prison. They shouldn’t be there living in a filthy room with over 157 prisoners. They are not safe there. Different viruses are in the air and they can be sick anytime. There are no proper medicine to relieve their pain like Diosel gas shouldn’t be used as a medicine for a stomach ache. When it’s raining they can’t sleep because the roof isn’t good. They drink water that’s not even clean. Food supply isn’t sufficient for them and they have to share it with their group. I realized that my life is very good and learned that I should be happy and contented because there are other people that can smile when they are living a miserable life. I shouldn’t be irritated to street children because they have different stories and hardships. And also I felt sad that the two children was born and died poor. They didn’t get a chance to enjoy their lives because they died at a young age. This is the bitter and sad reality that we are facing in the Philippines I just hope that God would lead them and doesn’t let them do immoral things.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Health Promotion Essay

The World Health Organization delineated health as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity† (WHO, 1946). Scientists define health promotion as the course of action taken to facilitate people to have power over and to enhance their health generally. To carry on and augment wellbeing some practices such as restraining from smoking, exercising at least three times a week to sustain fitness, reducing contact to radiation and toxic components, eating adequate amount of nutrients and minerals seem essential. In nursing practice, health promotion exists through education to facilitate inhabitants to create choices to keep them in good physical shape. According to the American Journal of Health, â€Å"Health Promotion is the science and the art of helping people change their lifestyles to move toward an optimal health.† Other factors that can encourage reaching out the purpose of health promotion are n ursing roles and responsibilities, implementation methods that covers all areas of nursing, and the levels of health support. The World Health Organization (WHO) created a movement named Healthy people 2010 to make all Americans cognizant of a variety of ways to prevent diseases and improve their health. The association placed nurses in the forefront by giving them the lead of the action due to the fact of their constant contact with individuals, families, and communities because they can help them make the right decision to promote health (WHO, 2000.) In addition, they acquire skills through evidence-based practice in critical moments of life to implement essential interventions through education after assessing, using a diagnosis, developing a plan the care of patients; a thorough evaluation of chosen activities always follows to assure a contented turning point. Nurses assist to promote health by helping groups of people in different settings to cultivate healthy lifestyle. The Institute of Medicine has a new research that clarifies responsibilities by stating the important role nurses play to implement and evaluate actions to promote health in the population. As advocate for the sick, the nurse-client interrelationship should take place for health promotion in order to teach people good habits in the choice of adequate diet to avoid obesity, to stop polluting the environment by quitting smoking for instance and access to clean water seem indispensable; moreover, inhabitants must not permit damaging social conditions that wipe out health to continue as they convey unhealthy states (Sullivan, 2000). Health promotion movements are meant to guard and advance health, and to avoid illness. These activities are grouped into three subsequent levels. The foremost and initial level of health promotion prevention is intended to stop diseases from starting or a trauma from happening. Diseases or trauma to prevent include immunization, household hazards, abstinence from smoking, measures that decrease the risk for stroke, educating and counseling regarding the use of vehicle passenger restraints and bicycle hat. The primary prevention averts the beginning of an aimed condition. It targets the greatest number of people in a community who might become at risk for a specific health dilemma like asthma which happened to be one of the most frequent respiratory diseases in modern countries. Furthermore, the secondary avoidance measures are those that spot and care for asymptomatic people at risk but in whom the provision is not clinically obvious. Activities of secondary escaping involve early case findings of disease without any sign that occurs and has major risk for harmful result exclusive of cure. Screening tests to detect hyperlipidemia, hypertension, breast and prostate cancer are model of secondary prevention actions. Lastly, when the disease has already started its course of action, tertiary prevention care is given to patient, attempts are made to re-establish highest function and stop sickness-related complications. Health is a store for everyday life that includes physical, mental, social comfort; consequently, health promotion activities will empower individuals and communities to raise their control over decisions that affect their health. With the possession of interpersonal skills, nurses contribute to encourage patients through teaching to make constructive changes that will keep them in good physical shape throughout life. The three levels of health promotion are supported through education. Within their scope of practice, nurses can allow individuals and communities to gain greater control over the determinants of their wellbeing to achieve the purpose of Health promotion. . References Edelman, C., & Mandle, C. L. (2010). Health promotion throughout the life spans (7th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. Eisenberg & Neighbors, (2007). National Research Council and Institute of Medicine [NAS-IOM], (2009). A national study by Kessler et al. (2005) According to a report from Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council (IOM and NAS) National Prevention, Health Pro Nola J. Pender, Carolyn L. Murdaugh, and Mary Ann Parsons. Motion, and Public Health Council. (2011). Annual status report [Internet]. Washington (DC): The Council; 2011 Jun 30 [cited 2011 Sep 30]. Available from: prevention/nphpphc/2011-annualstatus- report-nphpphc.pdf Nola J. Pender, Carolyn L. Murdaugh, & Mary Ann Parsons. (2006). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice (5th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education INC

Monday, July 29, 2019

The relation between intrest rates and investment and investment in Dissertation

The relation between intrest rates and investment and investment in Islamic products - Dissertation Example ..13 4. EXPECTED OUTCOMES†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 5. CONCLUSION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 Bibliography CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Islamic products are acquiring revenues from large number of sources, including mainly the financial assets, investing assets as well as investing in different business organisations across the country as well as across the globe1. The essential characteristic of the Islamic banking has been that it is â€Å"free of rate of interest†2. ... The underlying principle is that the conservative credit system incorporating interest rate policy leads to an unfair distribution of national income in the society and is regarded as a type of exploitation4. In effect, the insight of any of the â€Å"pre-determined fixed rate of return† totally disconnected from the real performance of the fundamental asset is not allowable. In Islamic theory of banking, the association between the investors and the financial intermediaries is rooted in â€Å"Profit and Loss Sharing† principle as the terms of different financial transactions require reflecting a symmetrical system of risk-return distribution between the counterparties5. 1.2 Theoretical Overview Theoretically, greater level of investments on the production structure of different goods and services in the country are creating significant level of pressure on the level of prices of those goods and services. Also as the financial and capital markets of the country are more flexible to provide the necessary amounts of investable loans to these business organisations, these companies are creating further pressure on the level of inflation in the country6. Hence, the interest rates are creating the most important effects in the process of development of the country7. This is because greater investments due to lower interest rates are creating inflationary pressures which are reducing the purchasing power of the people and thus reducing demand and hence production for goods and services or income in the country8. In case of Islamic banks, interest rates are prohibited. Hence the solution is devised through employment of a profit sharing ratio based on the profit of the Islamic bank. This is also known

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Operational Management Principles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Operational Management Principles - Essay Example Expansion of the plant would be an ideal solution which will solve all the issues related movement of the equipment, tracks, men and if any repairing to be carried out. The establishment itself should be planned in a manner that if in future when it is required to expand the plant then the existing plant layout should be valuable for a change. The primary concern is for the movement of carriers and tracks. If we come out with a solution such as, issuing tokens to trucks at the gate, which will be, have information like what type of load would be placed and quantity of load specified to transit through the plant. And to which point the trucks should report for loading or collecting the compliments only those trucks should be allowed at the particular points with tokens. This procedure will rule out the fault that the drivers getting impatient wasting at the point and baking. One more solution is to increase the number of points for the product pickups. This procedure will if implemented then drivers need not have to wait for long hours. If we employ a few supervisors at the transport which will help the customer contracted trucks to pass immediately from gate to gate which may take less than two hours from gate to gate and will also help in earning the goodwill for the company. With these kinds of changes, you can schedule the trucks for the product pickup within 4 hours notice. Even 2 hours notice before the purchase can also be served with ease. The customer contracted trucks appearing at the gate with an unanticipated purchase order can also be entertained and can be regulated to the respective pickup points thereby pleasing the customers with high-end professional service.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Mexicos Incomplete Transition to Democracy Essay

Mexicos Incomplete Transition to Democracy - Essay Example Whereas U.S. newspapers assert Caldern the victor, Mexican electoral establishment have up till now to do so, be familiar with the hearing that is evaluation quarrel as the concluding arbiter intended for the race. The precedent months in Mexico have been noticeable by a drive of dread adjacent to Lpez Obrador. What conventional depict as an alarm opportunity is the awfully issue that would have through nearly all to strengthen the country's transition toward democracy: a diplomatic transitory of power crossways ideological lines. When Vicente Fox succeed the most recent presidential ballot vote in 2000, his victory finished additional than seven decades of single-party domination and interrupt a number of the conventional backing set of connections that had distinct Mexican politics. Up till now Fox added the similar variety of market- tilting economic neoliberalism endorse intended for two decades by means of widespread-rule Institutional Revolutionary Party, which attached by the PAN to go by NAFTA in the near the beginning 1990s. As in numerous countries all through Latin America, neoliberalism has disastrous to transport for Mexico. Backside at what time he was on the movement trail, Fox guarantee that he would generate economic expansion of seven percent for each year; the authentic standard was 1.8 percent. Constant through the economy selection up in the initial quarter of 2006, Mexico has not distinguish somewhere near the one million fresh jobs per year that Fox oath. As a substitute, precipitous inequality, unrelenting poverty, and extreme anxiety have determined countless Mexican settler north in search of prospect in the post-NAFTA period cross the threshold Lpez Obrador. The middle-left presidential contender turns out to be an enormously well-liked stature as mayor of Mexico City by really paying consideration to the needs of the deprived. He get underway innovative public works along with shaped pensions plus subsidies designed for the elderly, solitary mothers, and the immobilize. All the way th rough nearly the entire presidential chase, Lpez Obrador census as the obvious frontrunner. He give your word to end particular privileges in addition to sweetheart agreement for the well-off, to lift proceeds by stalk an outbreak of elite tax avoidance, and to enlarge his communal programs countrywide. Lpez Obrador's approaching conquest presented impressive elementary intended for democracy: the prospect of genuine revolutionize. During the months foremost up to the voting, Lpez Obrador's political opponent brawl his contention with unremitting fear-mongering. yet subsequent to electoral bureaucrat talking to the PAN and enforced the party to draw campaign commercial that identify Lpez Obrador a "hazard to Mexico" as well as that declare artificial links with Hugo Chvez, accurate-wing dealing groups chuck the identical sucker thump in surrounding two. They furnish a sequence of "non-supporter" very last-miniature attack advertisement that demonstrate descriptions of the Venezuelan organizer and, wink, affirmed that "Mexico doesn't necessitate an authoritarian." In the meantime, U.S. expert admirer the flames through thinning out threatening allegation of "populism," and opinionated advisor voyage south of the boundary to assist plot the temperament assassination. By means of

Communication, Gender, & Sex Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Communication, Gender, & Sex - Article Example This essay "Communication, Gender, & Sex" outlines the issue of the behavioral pattern of the genders that exist in the society. Using the American community as an example, Kivel (1985) labels the stereotype given to males in America as Act-Like-a-Man box. The name given by the writer has two major derivations.. It is for the reason that boys are forced to belong to the order of toughness that the writer hold the opinion the whole system has generated into a stereotype. The name ‘box’ given by the customer has its reasons from the fact that the compulsion given to males to be touch is carried around on a 24 hour basis. This is to say that the practice does not end in a day. Another perception is given by the writer in his text in the context of cultural differences. The writer makes the point that even though boys all around the world are touted to be tough the rate of toughness and compulsion varies with different cultures. The advocacy that the writer assigns to the te xt is that the need for boys to be in control should not be mistaken for the need to be violent. Hur (2011) writes on the topic â€Å"Why I am a Male Feminist. The article is a typical narrative of the real life experience of the writer. As a typical family setting that is made up of its own challenges and strengths, the writer reports of growing up in a home where male dominance over females was shown in a rather bizarre manner. The bizarreness is seen in the sense that the writer reports of his father constantly abusing his mother and showing extreme lordship over her. Indeed if two captains paddle the same ship the ship wil sink and so there is the need for one to be a master whiles the other serves as a follower. This means that the family should certainly have a head. This however should not be mistaken for lordship of the head of the house over the others. Unfortunately, the father of the writer did not view the situation from such perspective and went ahead to abuse the mother. There are issues of socio-cultural concerns raised in the article. The writer holds the perspective that people with Black origin have a special attribute that is leading them in the wrong direction. It was generally due to how the father of the writer treated the mother that made the writer take the stand of becoming a feminist to fight for the right of women. In al two summaries above, there is a peculiar subject of gender stereotype that cuts across. Both articles have instances where males are seen as lords over females. In their attempt to show lordship, they go t he extreme to characterize their attitude with violence, force and compulsion. This is the perspective that is most regrettable. There is a clear misplacement of priority in the sense that men take the wrong approach towards the issue of gender difference. It is in this direction that Gandhi (2001) posits circumstances under which people of certain gender are portrayed as being with traitorous identity. If the scenarios presented by Kivel (1984) and Hurt (2011) are anything to go by, then it could be said without doubt that the answer to Gandhi’s question is that males are those with traitorous identity and the do this though various forms such as imposing their authority on females, abusing females by beating them, harassing females sexually and putting up other

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Myth's of Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Myth's of Innovation - Essay Example The Apple team realized that there was a potential to improve on the design of existing digital music players using existing technology. The iPod wasn’t developed as the result of a sudden epiphany; it was a product of the steady design process to refine the digital music player. The development of the iPod shows that good ideas are not hard to find. The important components that make the iPod work were all taken off the shelf (Grossman 68). The FireWire connector that allowed data to be transferred to the iPod much faster than the USB connection used by the rival Nomad was existing technology from Apple. The hard drive for the device was developed by Toshiba without any idea what such a small hard drive could be used for. The battery had already been developed by Sony for cell phones. The iPod was not developed by some lone inventor. A team of designers at Apple worked on the device and used components developed by teams of engineers at other companies (Grossman 66). While th e iPod has become a popular electronic device, it also shows that innovation is not always good. The popularity of digital music players has created problems for music producers due to rampant electronic piracy. The Internet was originally created as a network of computers for the military. With the threat of a nuclear attack during the Cold War, the Internet was developed to be a robust computer communications network (Berners-Lee 80). The Internet was not the product of some epiphany. It was steadily developed over several decades before becoming what it is today. Despite being initially developed for military applications, the Internet eventually became a popular computer network for personal and commercial usage. The Internet was not created by some lone inventor. Many teams of individuals worked on developing the network protocols (Berners-Lee 81). These teams worked on developing the Internet over several decades, and these teams worked towards many different outcomes during t his time as the network slowly transitioned from a military network to a predominantly civilian network. Many of the developments in the Internet over the years haven’t been a bottom up approach of the best ideas winning. Many of the changes have been enforced in a top down manner to force users to adopt new network protocols (Berners-Lee 81). When changes were not the result of top down pressure, innovation in the Internet was not based on solving an existing problem. Instead, the Internet was frequently a solution in search of a problem. Much of the content on the Internet was created to attract ad revenue instead of being the product of the communication possibilities in the new medium (Berners-Lee 84). Although it accounts for a sizeable portion of the bandwidth, the Internet wasn’t created to stream movies, music, pornography, and e-mail spam. Those applications were developed to use the potential of the Internet. The zipper is one of those devices that was invent ed independently several times until it caught on. But once it did catch on, the zipper dominated the market in clothing fasteners. The independent discoveries of the zipper show that good ideas are not hard to find (Stringer 18). If the idea was so hard to come up with, multiple people would not have invented it independently. Despite the problems with the zipper after years of use, the convenience factor allowed it to eventually beat out the button that has been around for thousands of years. The difficulty faced by the zipper

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Economics - Essay Example In 2010 the government debt was at 1105.8 billion pounds, which was 76.1% of the GDP. Of that public sector net borrowing was 10.3 billion pounds in 2010 and the public sector net debt was at 58% of the total GDP (Economic Indicators, 2011). The growth predictions by IMF have been 1.75% in 2011 and the interest rates in 2011 have been at a record low at 0.5% (UK interest rate held at record low of 0.5%., 2011). The British Chancellor George Osborne has announced plans to reduce the government spending in public sector. Restrain will be enforced on government spending like benefits for the retired, higher education, flood defenses (Spending Review 2010: George Osborne wields the Axe., 2010). As part of the plan some surgery procedures will be restricted like cataract operation, some common orthopedic surgeries. Nursing homes for aged people will be closed and funds will be rationed for IVF procedure and obesity cures (Donnelly, L. ,2010). There will be other austerity measures like bu dget cuts for many facilities like libraries, trusts, theatres, counseling and advice centers on the country (Pubic Sector Cuts: Where will they Hit?, 2011). Prior to the budget the Chancellor had said that with this budget he wanted to take the country from a course of rescue to the course of reform. According to Cameroon the level of debt and the credit crunch are the main causes for the recession. So he preferred the strategy of monetary activities to control the recession. There was a tremendous opposition for the reduction in VAT by the Gordon Brown government, which led to a loss of revenue for the government facing a shortage of fund. On the contrary, the previous government relied on borrowing to increase government expenditure. According to them it would push the economy back on a path of growth. The Gordon Brown government strongly believed in adopting fiscal changes to tackle the recession. The key features announced by Gordon Brown were a 500 billion pound plan to save t he banks and 21 billion pound of tax cuts and increase in government expenditure (Sparrow, 2009). Gordon Brown reduced the VAT by 2.5% from 17.5% to boost the household consumption. This reduced 12.5 billion pounds of tax revenue from the treasury annually. The other cuts announced by the then Chancellor Alistair Darling included extending the 120 billion pound annual rebate for the people paying tax at basic rate. Increases in the excise duty for vehicles were delayed. To discourage the foreign companies from shifting their businesses abroad tax was exempted on foreign dividends. Billions of pounds were assigned to construct roads, schools and housing projects. All these policies were framed keeping in mind the Keynesian theory of Aggregate Demand. The Aggregate Demand is the total demand for goods and services in the economy. The right hand side of the following equation gives it. Y + T = C(Y-T) + G + I(r, (Y-T)) + (X – M) Where, Y = Real Income T= Tax C(Y – T) = Con sumption which is a function of real disposable income, i.e., difference between real Income and tax. G = Government Expenditure which Is Exogenous I = Investment which is a function of real disposable income and interest rate r = rate of interest which can be flexible (endogenous) or fixed (exogenous) X = Export Income M= Import Income Therefore, (X – M) = Balance of Payment. So if we consider the price level in the vertical axis and the national output in the horizontal axis and plot the aggregate demand curve, it will be downward

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

What is football hooliganism and what social factors underlie it Essay

What is football hooliganism and what social factors underlie it - Essay Example â€Å"Football hooliganism is seen by most to mean violence and/or disorder involving football fans. However there are two very specific types of disorder that have been labeled hooliganism: (a) Spontaneous and usually low level disorder caused by fans at or around football matches (the type that typically occurs at England away matches), and (b) Deliberate and intentional violence involving organized gangs (or firms) who attach themselves to football clubs and fight firms from other clubs, sometimes a long way in time and space from a match.† (Pearson, 2007) Media has always been actively involved in covering disruptions at football matches and tournaments. Media has played a vital rule in making the general public aware of the concept football hooliganism. Media also takes particular interest in reporting events of football hooliganism as these sensational stories are what the audience really wants to hear. Theses events give tabloids exciting happening events involving violence to report about and such stories increases their magazine or newspapers circulation. Therefore, media has been criticized time and again for playing an integral part in provoking football hooliganism. â€Å"Many researchers, and many non-academic observers, have argued that this sensationalism, together with a predictive approach whereby violence at certain matches is anticipated by the media, has actually contributed to the problem.† (SIRC) â€Å"Hooligan formations provide their members with a sense of belonging, mutual solidarity and friendship. Narratives of hooligans reveal how group members claim to ‘look after one another’ and stick together through thick and thin†. (Spaaij, 2006) â€Å"Higher the emotional involvement (represented by high score on the emotionality subscale) the person has with the team, the more likely the individual will cause or participate in incidents.† (Petrà ³czi et al., n.d) â€Å"There are several theories, but most sociologists maintain that

Tuesday, July 23, 2019


CULTURES WITHOUT A COUNTRY - STATELESS NATION - Term Paper Example The development in the country has not gone unnoticed. However, they have been associated similar outcomes in other decentralized countries like Germany, United States and Australia. The association is treated under the foreign policy or international relations of the regional government that is known as the wider rubric of paradiplomacy. The domestic and international structures play an essential role in conditioning the consequences of nationalism for regions that operate internationally. Regional autonomy, national foreign policy agenda and constitutional frameworks are crucial elements of the domestic context. The key elements of international environment shaping are determined by the behavior of the foreign state in connection to political and economic continental regimes. Basque country is geographically situated at the western end of the Pyrenees and it covers territories in both France and Spain. The most polluted area of Basque country is in Spain, which is known to be a compound state that incorporates various degrees of internal ethno territorial plurality. The modern political unification of Spain took place through the means of a dynastic union under the catholic Kings in the year 1469. (Friend) However, its constituent territories maintained their autonomous existence. The incorporation of territories to the Hispanic monarchy was achieved in the unruly stage s of European Mordent Age. This was centuries before national homogenization process was carried out in the European monarchies. Prior to the union of the catholic Kings, the Castilian prices had the unification of Leon and Castile in bringing through royal marriages and conquest. It also incorporated the Basque provinces of Alava, Biscay and Guipuzcoa. These three provinces took good care of their local rights, fueros and traditions. During the XIX century, many Spanish dominions

Monday, July 22, 2019

300 Word Essay about Emerson Essay Example for Free

300 Word Essay about Emerson Essay Emerson’s assertion â€Å" every young man [ or women ] is born with some determination in his [ or her ] nature, and is a potential genius† is very powerful and I agree. At a young age most children fantasies about what they wish to become. For example I wanted to be a surgeon when I was younger. Over time the interest in becoming a surgeon faded away because I started to know more about the many things you can study and do for the rest of your life. Having a huge goal when I was little influenced and made me think twice as I grew. Did I really want to become a surgeon and possible save lives, or study material remains of past human life and activities? The point is having a goal since I was little makes me push myself more because I know I want to be more than a high school graduate. See more: The stages of consumer buying decision process essay I have my own determination because I know I’m the one that needs to work for myself to become as successful as I wish and I want to be good and passionate about something. My parents are fond of me and they really support my decisions, they really want me to be better than them and they give me the best they can to achieve what I want. My parents are my support. For that same reason I agree with Emerson. We all want to do something for someone to either prove them wrong or make them proud. This could be yourself. What we are passionate about is different but we all have something to look forward to. It all really depends when we find what we are passionate and determined about. Our determination about things become intensified and much clearer as we grow up and they may change.

Literature review compilations Essay Example for Free

Literature review compilations Essay 1. Rao, V. (1993). The rising price of husbands: A hedonic analysis of dowry increases in rural India. Journal of Political Economy, 666-677. Motivation and objective : Attempts to investigate the reasons behind the increase in dowry . Methods : It adapts Rosens implicit market model to the Indian marriage market and tests predictions from the model with data from six villages in South Central India and from the Indian census Theories : Using utility function, U is assumed to be maximized, given that U is the utility function which represent the household preferences. The function will be U = U(X,W,H). Where X refers to consumption of goods, W refers to the desirable traits of the bride and her family and H is traits of the groom. Main Findings : It is found that a marriage squeeze caused by population growth, resulting in larger younger cohorts and hence a surplus of women in the marriage market, has played a significant role in the rise in dowries. ( Surplus of women over man at marriageable ages) 2. Skogrand, L. M., Schramm, D. G., Marshall, J. P., Lee, T. R. (2005). The effects of debt on newlyweds and implications for education. Journal of extension, 43(3), 1. Motivation and objective : Examines the relationship between newlywed debt, selected demographic variables, and newlywed levels of marital satisfaction and adjustment.. Methods: A 38-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 2,823 newlywed couples in a western state. The couples names were randomly chosen from the marriage licenses that were filed within the state during a six-month period. Husbands and wives were asked to complete their surveys separately.The response rate was 40%, with 1,010 couples responding. Theories and tools : Marital satisfaction was measured using the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS) (Schumm et al., 1986), and marital adjustment was measured using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) (Busby, Crane, Christensen, Larson, 1995). The KMSS and RDAS are established measures for assessing marital satisfaction and adjustment, both having correlation coefficients above .78. Main Findings: The findings from this study indicate that entering marriage with consumer debt has a negative impact on newlywed levels of marital quality. The large majority (70%) of newlyweds in this study brought debt into their marriage relationship. This amount of debt, along with other expenses associated with couples beginning their lives together, are likely to  distract couples from the developmental task of building a strong marriage relationship during the first few months and years of marriage Policy recommendation: .- Because many individuals marry with no more than a high sch ool education, educating individuals about debt and its potentially negative impact on marriage relationships should begin in high school. This may be one way to help couples achieve healthier marriages 3. S. Dalmia (2004). A hedonic analysis of marriage transactions in India: estimating determinants of dowries and demandfor groom characteristics in marriage. Research in Economics 58 (2004) 235–255. Motivation and objective : This paper uses data from a retrospective sample survey to develop and test a framework capable of explaining dowry exchange and groom selection in India. Methods: Using a sample of 1037 households between 1956 and 1994, this paper develops and tests a framework capable of explaining marriage transactions and groom selection in India. Theories and tools : It adapts Rosen’s (1974) implicit market model and takes the view that dowry is a simple economic transaction that functions to ‘equalize’ the value of marriage services exchanged by the households of the bride and groom. Main Findings: Consistent with ethnographic evidence, results indicate that dowries are higher in regions more to the north. Most importantly, contrary to popular belief, it is found that holding groom characteristics constant, real dowries have decreased over time. Finally, in estimating the parameters of the demand functions for a set of groom attributes, results show that the most important determinants of demand for various groom attributes are price of the attribute, bride’s traits, and the socio-economic status of the bride’s h ousehold 4. Siwan Anderson (2007). The Economics of Dowry and Brideprice. Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 21, Number 4—Fall 2007—Pages 151–174 Motivation and objective: This paper first establishes some basic facts about the prevalence and magnitude of marriage payments. It then discusses how such patterns vary across countries depending upon economic conditions, societal structures, institutions, and family characteristics. Theories and tools: The descriptions of marriage payments in this paper are synthesizedfrom a patchwork of studies across periods, places, and even epochs, and there are doubtless numerous cases which remain undocumented.  Discussion: Economists’ interest in marriage payments partly stems from their potential to affect the wealth distribution across generations and families. However, economic analysis has not directly investigated these welfare impacts of marriage payments. In this respect, marriage transfers which are destined for the couple, either in the form of dowry or dower, may function differently from those which are paid directly from one set of parents to the other, like bride price or groom price. The former payment is an intergenerational transfer. The latter forms a circulating fund, with receipt for marriages of one gender being used to pay for marriages of children of the other. 5. Sarwat Afzal Imtiaz Subhani (2009). To Estimate An Equation Explaining The Determinants Of Dowry. Iqra University Motivation and objective : The focus of this study is to estimate an equation explaining the determinants of dowry. Methods: The data of 140 respondents is used to examine the variables to determine the dowry size, data set on bride-groom characteristics and dowry. The study has been focused on analysis that dowry paid is dependent on which variables Subject in the rural subcontinent. Since the objective of study is to estimate the equation explaining the determinant of dowry so all the variables given in the data are takes as independent and the dowry paid is taken as dependent variable. Theories and tools: This paper determine the determinants of dowry, using multiple regression analysis, the author used the ANOVA table, R2 value to tabulate the determinants of dowry price. Main Findings: This research suggested that dowry paid is based on the status and the affluence of husband’s family as well as the education of the husband’s father that are the important determina nts of the incidence of dowries. The influence of husband’s father education is accounted as a predictor for the system of dowry paid 6. Edlund, L. (2006). The price of marriage: Net vs. gross flows and the South Asian dowry debate. Journal of the European Economic Association, 4(2†3), 542-551. Motivation and objective : The rise in dowry payments in India has been taken as evidence that women increasingly are at a disadvantage on the marriage  market and must pay for marriage. Moreover, high dowries, it is argued, add to the plight of parents of daughters and have thus contributed to the scarcity of women (brides). However, the logic is curious, and, this paper argues, flawed. The term dowry can mean different things, and it may be useful to distinguish between the assets the bride brings at the time of marriage (gross dowry) and those netted against the groom payments (net dowry). The former is what is generally meant by dowry, while the latter is a concept used mainly by economists Methods: Data are from a retrospective survey of marriages conducted in 1983 by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). These data have been used in a number of studies of South Asian dowry inflation. ICRISAT conducted a stratified random sample of 40 households each from six villages in South-central India. The first household married in 1923 and the last in 1978. Main Findings: Empirically, the paper has shown that in a much-used data set on dowry inflation, net dowries did not increase in the period after 1950, belying claims of recent increases. Moreover, variables designed to capture marriage-squeeze or male relative to female heterogeneity failed to move dowries in the expected direction. 7. Balwick, J. (1975). The function of the dowry system in a rapidly modernizing society: The case of Cyprus. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 158-167. Motivation and objective : The purpose of this paper is to examine the functional relationship between the dowry system and modernization for the country of Cyprus. Two inferences tried to be drawn in this paper are attempt to develop is two 1) the dowry system has served a latent function in encouraging a rapid rate of urban, Industrial, and technological development in Cyprus; and (2) that the rapid rate of technological development in Cyprus, along with new concepts of marital arrangement, are weakening the importance of the dowry system Methods: The analysis of this papers topic will begin by considering the function of the dowry system in Traditional Greek Cypriot society, move to a consideration of the function of the dowry system during rapid modernization, turn to a consideration of the effect of modernization upon the dowry system, and conclude by  speculating as to the possible effect which a decline in the dowry system will have upon marriage. Main Findings: modernization is a threat to the continued existence of the dowry system. The argument was made that, besides the major aspects of modernization themselves, the concept of romantic love, as a byproduct of a largely western stimulated modernization process, has been damaging to the dowry system. However, to so speculate about the future effects of modernization in Cyprus only points to the necessity for social scientists to utilize the situations created in developing countries to further examine the relationships between modernization and social structures. 8. Gaulin, S. J., Boster, J. S. (1990). Dowry as female competition. American Anthropologist, 92(4), 994-1005. Motivation and objective : The purpose of this paper is to prove that dowry as a reproductive tactic used by prospective brides and their kin to attract the wealthiest bridegroom. The authors attempt to explain not only the rarity of dowry, but also why it occurs in the societies it does. Methods and theories: The analysis of this papers topic will begin by considering the female-competition model. The female-competition model assumes that, in Homo sapiens as in other animals, the behaviors associated with pair formation can be interpreted as (possibly unconscious) reproductive tactics. The authors interpret the bias in marriage transactions as reflecting a bias in competition for marriage partners. Dowry is their dependent variable; the independent variables in the female-competition model are social stratification and marital form. They grouped the existing categories to create dichotomous variable. Main Findings: The female-competition model is correct; the authors would expect th e largest dowry payments to flow from the middle class to the elite, as women in the middle tier compete for husbands in the highest 9. Rao, V. (1993). Dowry ‘inflation’ in rural India: A statistical investigation. Population Studies, 47(2), 283-293. Motivation and objective : The author of this paper look more directly at the causes of the increase of dowry (investigate the reasons behind the rise in the real value of dowries in rural India)and use unique data collected from a small sample of households by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Methods and theories: The data used in this paper are from a random sample of 40 households, 30 cultivating and 10 laboring, per village, from six villages in three districts of rural South-Central India. The surveys were conducted by ICRISAT, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.15 The districts are Akola and Sholapur in Maharashtra state, and Mahbubnagar in Andhra Prades. A quadratic specification of dowry determinants is estimated. Correlations values between variables, OLS , and other statistical tools are being used. Main Findings: The empirical results support the hypothesis that the marriage squeeze has played a significant part in causing dowry inflation. The size of the dowry transfer also seems to be affected by hyper gamy, indicated by the difference in the amount of land owned by the parents of the respective spouses before the marriage. Due to the small size of the sample and the respondents lack of accuracy in reporting their ages at marriage, not much can be said about the impact of age or other potential determinants on the transfer. At the district level, however, the marriage squeeze does seem to matter in reducing differences in the ages at marriage of men and woman. 10. Teays, W. (1991). The burning bride: The dowry problem in India. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 29-52. Motivation and objective : The author consider the issue of dowry, its roots in custom and religious tradition, as well the ways in which the dowry system has become a dowry problem with daily dowry deaths, usually of young and often pregnant women. Main Findings: Females being devalued in the Hindu world. The internalization of that devaluation is evidenced by the numbers of mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law who actively participate in dowry murder. Marriage has become a commercial transaction complete with bargaining. Traditionally dowries were limited by convention and caste-social realities, but now the demands are out of control. The growing trend of dowry murders only reflects the socio-economic crisis in India. 11. Zhang, J., Chan, W. (1999). Dowry and Wifes Welfare: A Theotrical and Empirical Analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 107(4), 786-808. Motivation and objective : This paper offers an alternative analysis. Where dowry are claimed to be not only increases the wealth of the new conjugal household but also enhances the bargaining power of the bride in the allocation of output within that household, thereby safeguarding her welfare. 2 hypotheses: Dowry increases the resources available to the bride’s new family; Dowry increases the bride bargaining position in the family, as well as her welfare. Methods and theories: This study uses data from the 1989 Taiwan Women and Family Survey,an island wide probability survey of women aged 25–60 years of all marital statuses and from different geographical locations. The female respondents provide socioeconomic information on their parents, their husbands, and themselves. An important feature of the data is that these women report transfers on dowries and bride prices related to their marriages. All these variables are then measured using statistical tools. Main Findings: The result supported the theoretical prediction that a dowry improves the wife’s welfare through both income and bargaining effects. The result also shows that a dowry is indeed a property under the wife’s control. Bride-price reduces the transaction cost involved in recovering the appropriate shares of marital output by each party, a dowry enhances the bride’s position in the household and safeguards her welfare. 12. Bishai, D., Falb, K. L., Pariyo, G., Hindin, M. J. (2009). Bride price and sexual risk taking in Uganda. African journal of reproductive health, 13(1). Motivation and objective : This study assessed the relationship of bride price to sexual risk taking based on a large, population based survey. Methods and theories: Data were collected on bride prices for 592 married women in 12 districts in Uganda in 2001. Controlling for covariates, we found that having had a bride price significantly lowered the wifes odds of sexual intercourse with a partner other than the spouse (OR= 0.222; 95% CI= 0.067, 0.737). Controlling for covariates, bride price increased the husbands odds of non-spousal sexual intercourse (OR=1.489; 95% CI= 0.746, 2.972). Main Findings: Bride price payment is statistically significantly associated with lower rates of non-spousal sexual contact in women, but is  not, statistically significantly associated with higher rates in men 13. Dalmia, S., Lawrence, P. G. (2005). The institution of dowry in India: Why it continues to prevail. The Journal of Developing Areas, 38(2), 71-93. Motivation and objective : This article empirically examines dowries in India and provides an institutional and economic rationale for the existence and continued prevalence of the system. Main Findings: Using data on marriage transactions and on the personal and family traits of marital partners the article demonstrates that payments of dowry serve to equalize the measurable differences in individual characteristics of the brides and grooms and their respective households. Thus, dowry qualifies as the price paid for a good match in the marriage market. Results also reveal that the form of inheritance system, the residence of the bride after marriage, and the gender ratio of marriageable women to men have no effect on the incidence and size of dowry 14. Diamond†Smith, N., Luke, N., McGarvey, S. (2008). ‘Too many girls, too much dowry’: son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Culture, health sexuality, 10(7), 697-708. Motivation and objective : The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making which is due to the dowry rate. Main Findings: Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. 15. Rozario, S. (2002). Grameen Bank-style microcredit: Impact on dowry and womens solidarity. Development Bulletin, 57, 67-70. Motivation and objective : This article focuses on two specific problems connected with Grameen Bank-style microcredit in Bangladesh: its negative impact on women’s solidarity, and its consequences for the practice of dowry payments. Main Findings: Findings suggest that Unmarried women are not  accepted in the microcredit samities and so cannot receive loans. The argument is that they will get married and go away to their husbands’ village, then who will repay their loan? This denies any opportunity to marginal groups, like unmarried women and, of course, widows and abandoned women. Such policies also mean that unmarried women are made completely dependent financially on the mercy of their families. 16. Kazi Abdur Rouf, (2012) A feminist interpretation of Grameen Bank Sixteen Decisions campaign, Humanomics, Vol. 28 Iss: 4, pp.285 – 296. Motivation and objective : The purpose of this paper is to look at Grameen Bank (GB) Sixteen Decisions campaigns and its implications to feminism; and to examine the degree to which women borrowers of the Grameen Bank are empowered to participate in familial decision-making around dowry and teenage marriage and to develop their public spaces in the community. Moreover, the paper critically looks at the GB women borrowers development through the Sixteen Decisions Design/methodology/approach – The study uses multiple research methods. It reviews and analyzes GB Sixteen Decision texts and feminist literature, uses survey method to collect data from Grameen Bank micro borrowers in 2011 and uses secondary data. Main Findings : This study still finds the gender equality issues exist in the Grameen Bank Sixteen Decisions texts and the Sixteen Decisions campaign strategies for women borrowers empowerment especially due to the issue of dowry. Policy Recommendation: This critical analysis is very important to empower Grameen Bank women borrowers because the campaign should be made more effective in addressing womens issues like dowry-less marriage. Grameen Bank should revise the Sixteen Decisions texts and support borrowers in their anti-dowry and anti-teen age marriage campaign in Bangladesh. 17. Tenhunen, S. (2008). The gift of money: rearticulating tradition and market economy in rural West Bengal. Modern Asian Studies, 42(5), 1035-1055. Motivation and objective : This article examines the rise of dowry system injanta, a West Bengali village in the Bankura district, where the dowry payments are a relatively new phenomenon. The oldest generation in Janta had experienced times when no demands for money or other gifts had been made during marriage arrangements, but since the 1950S huge dowry payments have become the central financial transactions in the region. In addition to oral history interviews on dowry  practices, the author draws from his research on the changes in caste, gender and class relationships in the village. Findings : The gift of money does not merely represent class and economic identities, rather, its intr oduction is connected to a reconstruction of gender and caste identities as well. The article demonstrates how the giving of money has influenced other categories of gifts, while the market logic has drawn from cultural considerations. Yet, money is not the only agent in the process; gifts are essentially about constructing social and cultural identities: the interconnected domains of gender, kinship, caste and class. The introduction of the monetary gift has made it possible to make connections and set a price on different aspects of personhood facilitating and intensifying the connections between different discourses on personhood. 18. Shenk, M. K. (2007). Dowry and public policy in contemporary India. Human Nature, 18(3), 242-263. Motivation and objective :. This paper argues that a functionalist perspective on dowry could lead to improved dowry policy, and that an approach based in human behavioral ecology (HBE) is uniquely suited to this task. Design/methodology/approach – The author develop a behavioral ecology model of Indian dowry and test it with quantitative and qualitative data Main Findings : The author conclude that if dowry legislation is to achieve broad support or bring about effective social change, it must address and support the positive motivations for and effects of dowry and take a targeted approach to dowry violence, which is not uniformly distributed across regions, castes, or social 19. Rao, V. P., Rao, V. N. (1980). The dowry system in Indian marriages: attitudes, expectations and practices. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 99-113.. Motivation and objective :The study examined the students expectations of dowry for persons with different educational background, their attitudes and feelings about the dowry system, and the practices of dowry payments in immediate and kin families Design/methodology/approach – The questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 585 college students from  India Main Findings The study revealed that the average dowry expectation were not consistent With the number of years of education but were in line with the prestige of education. Non-Hindus, metropolitan residents, high socioeconomic status students, and medical students expected higher dowry than their counterparts. The majority of the respondents considered dowry unimportant in settling a marriage and felt that the present dowry system should be discontinued. However, most of the respondents brothers received dowry while their families gave dowry to their sisters. The kin families also practiced dowry payment at the time of marriage. The students seemed equalitarian in terms of control over the dowry as most believed that both husband and wife should decide how to spend it. Inconsistency in the attitudes are also observed as three-fourths of the sample considered dowry unimportant in the settlement of a marriage but nearly one-third of the males and 40 per cent of their parents expected to receive dowry when the respondents got married. 20. Freed, R. S., Freed, S. A. (1989). Beliefs and practices resulting in female deaths and fewer females than males in India. Population and Environment, 10(3), 144-161. Motivation and objective:. A preference for sons and the low status of females are implicated in the preponderance of males over females as reported in each census of India from the first one taken in the 19th century. A number of cultural practices, some of which are quite ancient, are involved in this such as sexual imbalance and dowry murder. This discussion is sees the determinants of female deaths in India. Design/methodology/approach – This discussion is based both on 19th and 20th century sources and on fieldwork conducted in the North Indian village of Shanti Nagar in 1958–59 and 1977–78. Findings : It is found that dowry act as one of the determinants that resulted in female deaths which is more commonly known as Dowry Murder Policy Recommendation: The modern Government of India has so ught to abolish dowry which would, presumably, put an end to dowry murder.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Critically Evaluate Doyles Definition Marketing Essay

Critically Evaluate Doyles Definition Marketing Essay Most academics and marketing practioners consider that there are two basic approaches to marketing which are often categorised as being traditional or relationship based. The traditional approach to marketing has the acquisition of new customers as its central tenet. Indeed, Peter Drucker (1964, p. 91) suggested that a business only existed to create a customer. However, organisations have increasingly begun to recognise that customer retention is as important, if not more so, than customer acquisition. The driving force behind this change in thinking has been the ever increasing cost of acquiring new customers (Holmlund and Koch, 1996). Therefore, in contrast to traditional marketing, the basic premise of relationship marketing is the development of customer relationships with a view to cost reduction within the organisation and increased shareholder value through the creation of high levels of customer satisfaction (Perrien and Ricard, 1995). Indeed, many relationship marketing the orists summarise the difference between relationship marketing and traditional marketing as the creation of customer satisfaction rather than the creation of a customer (Perrien and Ricard, 1995). In terms of the competitive advantage dimension of Doyles definition, Porters Generic Strategies model (1980, p. 39 see Appendix I) suggests that the traditional approach to marketing relies heavily on a strategy of cost leadership and price competiveness. In contrast, relationship marketing focuses on differentiation, in terms of product and/or brand attributes, as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. It can be seen, therefore, that Doyles definition of marketing is closely allied to the relationship marketing school of thinking. However, Doyles definition does not take account of the fact that the implementation of a relationship based approach to marketing alone does not necessarily guarantee that an organisation will achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, or, therefore, a subsequent maximisation of shareholder returns. To have the potential for this, a relationship marketing programme must include attractive and relevant value propositions for customers, which should differentiate an organisations brand and/or products from those of its competitors. In addition, these differentiated value propositions should not be easy for competitors to imitate (Barney, 1991). It is critical, therefore, that an organisation establishes exactly what value its customers are seeking in order for it to be able to design and deliver the appropriate value-enhancing benefits that will facilita te the building of meaningful long-term, and mutually beneficial, customer relationships (Christopher et al, 2002, p. 22). Doyles definition refers only to valued customers suggesting that they are a homogenous group. However, not all customers are alike and Newell (2003, p. 17) articulates this when he states that Customers dont want to be treated equally. They want to be treated individually. Therefore, not only does successful relationship marketing rely on the creation of customer value propositions but also on the process of segmenting and targeting the most appropriate customers and then tailoring and positioning value propositions to appeal to the various, identified consumer segments. Furthermore, the segmentation of consumers by psychographic and behavioural attributes enables an organisation to understand the different motivational factors that influence those consumers in their purchasing behaviour towards specific brands or products, thus facilitating a more individual approach to customers. In addition, segmentation by this method provides an organisation with an insight into the specific va lue benefits that its customers, and potential customers, are seeking when they make a purchase. This, in turn, assists in the creation of desirable and differentiated brands and/or products, and enables their effective positioning for the identified segments (Dibb et al., 1997). The segmentation, targeting, and positioning process is summarised in Appendix II. Doyles definition of marketing specifically identifies developing relationships with valued customers as a means of creating a competitive advantage. However, the definition makes no reference to any other stakeholder groups that an organisation may have, and will certainly need to interact with, if it is to build and sustain a competitive advantage. The six markets stakeholder model indentifies the key stakeholder groups that require attention from any organisation that adopts a comprehensive relationship marketing approach to the achievement of its business growth and profitability objectives (Christopher et al., 2002, p. 76 see Appendix III) Whilst this model is certainly customer centric, it recognises different stakeholder groups as having the potential to engage in active relationships with the organisation and., therefore, be considered for inclusion within its marketing strategy. It is necessary for organisations to effectively manage relationships with all of these groups e specially as they have an interrelationship with each other. For example, shareholders in an organisation are members of the Influencer Markets, but may also be part of the Referral Markets and the Customer Markets. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, in terms of support for Doyles definition, research has shown that there is a direct link between the adoption of a successful relationship marketing strategy and profit (Bhote, 1996). None of this is to say, however, that traditional marketing does not have a role to play in the modern-day commercial environment. There is no doubt that many consumers have a short-term outlook, in terms of their purchasing behaviour, and are not necessarily loyal to particular brands. Indeed, such consumers may buy particular brands out of habit or they may actively search for brands regardless of whether or not they are being targeted by relationship marketing programmes (Kotler and Armstrong, 2011, p. 150). In this sense, Doyles definition does not recognise the concept or value of traditional marketing. However, the many exponents of the traditional approach to marketing regard it as a distinct and dedicated management function within an organisation that is responsible for creating transactions with certain groups of customers that satisfy their immediate needs and wants whilst, at the same time, meeting the marketing objectives set by the organisation (Grà ¶nroos, 2006). Organisations that deploy traditional marketing methods tend to view the marketing function as being responsible for the so-called four Ps, namely Product, Place (distribution), Price, and Promotion, rather than the management of customer relationships. Research has also shown that, in fact, very few organisations deploy exclusively either traditional marketing or relationship marketing. More often than not there will be a blending of the two marketing disciplines and, in terms of responsibility within an organisation, traditional marketing may be the domain of the marketing department with customer relationship management being a standalone function. In any case, the choice between using one of the two methods, and using both, should always be based on the industry in question and the needs of the customer. (Zinedlin and Philipson, 2007). However, there remains no doubt that many consumers are willing, and able, to form emotional, as well as practical, transaction-based relationships with organisations. This is particularly the case where an organisation has a recognisable brand as consumers are more likely to identify with a brand, and remain loyal to that brand, than they are to an organisation. Loyalty by customers to a brand is known to be a prime factor in the creation of sustainable competitive advantage and, therefore, business growth and profitability (Aggarwal, 2004). It is for these reasons that, according to Kotler and Armstrong (2011, p. 259), of all the assets owned by an organisation, the brand is the perhaps the most enduring and valuable in terms of its ability to generate shareholder wealth. Consequently, although Doyles definition of marketing has been seen to exclude the still relevant dimension of traditional marketing, it can be effectively applied to the creation and management of the marketing s trategy of an organisation. Even so, Doyles definition does not go far enough in its attempts to encompass the practice and value of relationship marketing as it does not specifically refer to the strategically significant role of brands in building sustainable competitive advantage. Consequently, to apply Doyles definition in a practical sense to the creation and management of an organisations marketing strategy, it is first necessary to discuss and evaluate the role that branding and brand reputation plays. As has already been shown, true relationship marketing demands that brands, and their inherent value propositions, are positioned in a differentiated and competitive sense against the various identified consumer segments. This is only the first step in the branding process and it is critical to the building of a sustainable competitive advantage that, over time, an organisation is able to build and sustain its brand reputation. Brand reputation is to do with how customers think and feel about a brand and, in order to develop brand reputation organisations need to have certain building blocks in place to enable customers to feel confident in developing meaningful relationships with the brand (Keller, 2003). These building blocks include brand salience, perfor mance, imagery, and resonance, which all impact on the judgements consumers make about a brand and, ultimately, how they will behave towards it. This process of brand reputation building is summarised in Appendix IV. If the process is followed effectively, then customers will ultimately progress from understanding, and empathising with, the brands value propositions to having a resonance with the brand and being ready to form an emotional relationship with it. To maximise the value of this potential emotional relationship, organisations have to take advantage of every available opportunity to ensure that engagement between their brand and their customers is positive. These engagements can comprise a number of so called customer touchpoints, such as direct marketing, helplines, advertising, and social media. Every time that a customer engages with a brand through a touchpoint that customers views and opinions about the brand are formulated and, ultimately, this will influence attitudes and behaviour towards the brand. Indeed, Doyle himself (1998) suggested that, by maximising the positive and integrated nature of customer engagements with their brands, organisations could enhance their overall bra nd reputations. Consumers who form emotional relationships with brands can actually become so enthusiastic about these relationships that they develop a loyalty to the brand and may even progress as far as becoming so called brand advocates, recommending the brand to friends, family, and members of their peer and reference groups (Aggarwal, 2004). If the organisation carefully nurtures these loyal customers and brand advocates, then they can become immensely valuable, in terms of future shareholder returns, and groups of them may even form themselves into brand communities on social networking sites, such as Facebook, where their influence over other customers and potential customers will be even greater. In summary and conclusion, it can be seen that the successful management of an organisations customer relationships can lead to customer loyalty and advocacy and is a key factor in an organisations ability to establish and maintain its competitive advantage, which, in itself, is a prerequisite for growth and profitability in todays globalised and highly competitive marketplace. Although Doyles definition recognises the increasingly significant role of customer relationship management within the marketing discipline, it fails to take account of the other key stakeholder groups that interact within an organisation, and with each other. Equally, certain strategically important aspects of a comprehensive relationship marketing strategy that will maximise competitive advantage and, in turn, shareholder returns, are not referred to in Doyles definition. These shortcomings include a lack of recognition of the value and role of brands in the marketing process as well as the significance of s egmentation, targeting, and positioning. In addition, Doyles definition totally excludes any reference to the important role that traditional marketing is still able to play within a successful marketing strategy Even so, although Doyles definition does fall short in certain areas, it is still a solid foundation for the framing of an organisations marketing strategy. This is because modern-day organisations have to understand that, in order to deliver the returns that their shareholders demand, a significant element of marketing practice has to be focussed on the building of long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with customers rather than on new customer acquisition. This is especially true as consumers not only have an increasingly heightened awareness of brands but also take more account of a brands reputation when making a purchasing decision. Equally, consumers are more willing to express their brand awareness by either defection from, or loyalty to, particular brands. Organisations can encourage customer loyalty to their brands by developing and communicating, at every available opportunity, consistent, relevant, and powerful brand propositions that are customised to their identif ied market segments. In this way, brands can build competitive advantage through differentiation rather than through the adoption of low pricing policies which impact negatively on profitability and, thereby on shareholder returns. -

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Grange :: essays research papers

The Grange The Grange was the first major farm organization and began in the 1860's. This organization was created mostly as a social and self-help association not originally an organization of protest. During the depression of 1873, this group of bonded friends, became an "agency for political change." They knew in ordered to help themselves they must become a voice in this new government in order to survive. With the depression farm product prices began to decrease. More farms joined the Grange to band together to resolve the issues before them. Beginning as a small group of friends learning from each other what worked and what didn't, by 1875 the Grange boasted of over 800,000 members and 20,000 local lodges; claiming chapters in almost every state, being the strongest in the states that produced the most: the South and Midwest. As a group (strong in member) they made their statement to the world on an appropriate day, Independence Day 1873. The framers Declaration of Independence informed those listening they were ready to fight back. The Declaration stated they would use "all lawful and peaceful means to free themselves from the tyranny of monopoly". Many of the members opened stores and other businesses so they could begin to buy and sell to each other. However most of these were farmers, with families, not businessmen and many companies didn't survive because of their lack of real business knowledge and the pressures of the middlemen who wanted them to fail. They worked as a team to get candidates elected who agreed with the need for governmental control of the railroads. With the control of the Legislatures they implemented governmental controls on railroad rates and practices. However the railroad was also very wealthy. They hired lawyers who soon destroyed the new regulations. With these defeats and with the new rise in farm prices in the late 1870's the Grange began to lose strength and power, dwindling to a membership to only 100,000 by 1880. The Grange was the springboard for another banding together of farmers, the Farmers Alliances. This new movement began in the Southern states and quickly spread beyond what the Grange had been. One of the most notable differences within the Alliance, was the approval of women to vote and become speakers and leaders for their cause. The Alliance however, had similar problems as the Grange. Many of the cooperations, stores, banks, processing plants and other resources began to suffer the same fate. Lack of solid management and the market forces operating against them caused them to fail. These disappointments aided the forming of a national political organization.

Friday, July 19, 2019

A Critical Analysis of the Poetry of Marvell Essay -- Biography Biogra

Critical Analysis of The Garden    As with many of his poems, Andrew Marvell wrote The Garden to put forward his point of view and then argue it logically. In The Definition of Love, for example, he writes about unrequited passions, insisting that Fate itself acts against true love; in The Garden he takes a similarly pessimistic viewpoint and takes it to its misanthropic limits, attempting to argue that being at one with nature and away from other people is the best way to live.    All poets have traits and habits that define their own style - some more so than others. Marvell's style is particularly recognizable, as he commonly uses several easily identifiable techniques and images. Of the latter, The Garden features many of Marvell's staple ingredients. Central to the entire poem is the idea of pure nature, of a world without the intrusion of mankind: Marvell's own Eden. In his poetry, he takes every opportunity to extol the virtues of a type of hermitage, of being at peace with oneself and the universe as a whole; this can also be seen as central themes in poems...

Essay --

Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience 1. What conclusion can be drawn regarding the quote, â€Å"Government is at best but an expedient; but most governments are usually, and all governments are sometimes, inexpedient†? A. Government is the necessary evil that is merely convenient on the short run; however, a majority of governments are not beneficial toward the people and it fails to pertain to the service of the community. B. No individual should sacrifice their moral principles in return for unjust circumstances implemented amongst federal government. C. In a democracy, the most virtuous and thoughtful group are regarded their desires rather than the majority group. D. Thoreau illustrates the importance of asserting ethical principles, rather than government policy. 2. Which of the following would be the best example of a paradox? A. â€Å"He who gives himself entirely to his fellow-men appears to them useless and selfish; but he who gives himself partially to them is pronounced a benefactor and philanthropist.† B. "A drab of state, a cloth-o'-silver slut, To have her train borne up, and her soul trail in the dirt." C. â€Å" speak practically and as a citizen, unlike those who call themselves no-government men† D. "I am too high-born to be propertied, To be a secondary at control,† 3. What conclusion can be drawn on Thoreau’s perspective of soldiers? A. They are symbolic heroic figures that participate in ethical principles. B. They comply to government laws in order preserve the services we enjoy today. C. A product of the government that doesn’t exercise moral sense. D. The good citizens of our nation that are predominantly responsible for the freedom we are granted. 4. Which of the following would be a best example of ... ... with their bodies.† D. â€Å"In their practice, nations agree with Paley; but does anyone think that Massachusetts does exactly what is right at the present crisis?† 14. What statements support Thoreau’s interpretation of â€Å"Civil Disobedience†? A. He interprets â€Å"Civil Disobedience† as a willful resistance to disobey hypocritical laws implemented by the government. B. The Emancipation Proclamation of slaves in 1862 C. Making amends with former adversaries/rivalries D. Establishing the most desirable government with extreme regulations and laws intact. 15. What motive is there in Thoreau’s theories? A. To establish an idea of how individuals should generally behave within our society. B. To persuade the readers to rebel against the United States C. To inform readers about the injustices of the Mexican War. D. To inform readers about the injustices of slavery

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Spread of buddhism throughout china

Spread Of Buddhism In China Buddhism is a path of practice and spiritual development leading to Insight into the true nature of reality. It is a religion that was founded in India in the sixth century BCE and was brought to China by the first century CE. When Buddhism was brought to China and it gradually won over converts, expanded throughout China, and influenced Chinese culture as we know it. In spite of Buddhism's dissemination throughout China there were still Chinese people who didn't convert to Buddhism due to their strong Confucian beliefs.The Chinese had two vastly different points of iews about Buddhism. The first point of view of the Chinese would be anti- Buddhism. This point of view was popular in that of Confucian Scholars and officials at the Tang imperial court. According to document's 3, 4, 6 Buddhism wasn't religion that one should practice. In Document 3 an anonymous Chinese scholar asks readers , † If Buddhism is the greatest and most venerable of ways , why did the great sages of the past and Confucius not practice it? The Chinese scholar is saying that if Buddhism is so great why did Confucius or Laozi, the great sage of Daoism not ractice Buddhism. This implies that Buddhism wasn't that great of a religion after all. The Chinese Scholars claims are biased. He writes strictly about the bad things about Buddhism. It is one sided and only answers with what he believes are failings of Buddhism.According to document 4 Confucian Scholar and Tang official believes that Buddhism is no more than a cult. He states,† Buddhism is no more than a cult of the barbarian peoples spread to China. The speaker is angered that Buddha was being honored by the ruler at the time (Your Majesty). Buddha was not of Chinese escent, he was foreign and doesn't deserve for his body to be admitted to the palace. † Confucius said : Respect Ghost and spirits, but keep them at a distance! â€Å". The speaker expresses that he is ashamed of what Your Maje sty is doing and begs that Buddha's bones be burned so that Buddha's evil be rooted out of China. The Speakers claims are one sided. He is a leading Confucian Scholar and has strict roots in Confucianism.According to document 6, the speaker, the Tang Emperor Wu says â€Å"Buddhism wears out people's strength, pilfers their wealth, causes people to bandon their lords and parents for the company of teachers, and severs man and wife with its monastic decrees. † Buddhism goes against the views of Confucianism damaging the five key relationships due to its monastic decree. The emperor believes that Buddhism should be eradicated and that it is evil. His argument is one sided he even states that the Buddhist temples have reached boundless numbers sufficient enough to outshine the imperial palace.The emperor is fearful of his reign as emperor and his loss of power throughout China. All three of these documents escribe the evils and failings of Buddhism and why it should eradicated in china. All three documents are also biased. An additional document that would also promote anti- Buddhism would be a Journal entry from the father of a convert to Buddhism and his description on how his life has changed as his as lost sight of the way he raised man taught him the Chinese ways ot tilial piety The second point ot view of the Chinese would be pro-Buddhism. Pro-Buddhism views are shown in documents 1,2,and 5.According to document 1, the end of one's sorrows is through the Buddhist doctrine, â€Å"The Four Noble Truths. There is sorrow in everything if you have cravings or passion. To get over your sorrow you must release yourself from your cravings and passions and Buddhism will teach you how to. The speaker is Buddha himself and is one sided because others might not feel as if they have sorrows because they have passions or that their passions make them happy and not sorrowful. According to document 2 whoever serves the Buddha and correctly observes his commandments will at the end of their life enter nirvana.This is one sided because some people might disagree and say that there is no nirvana and that ou continue to be reincarnated even if you do believe in Buddha. According to document 5 Buddhism was established according to the demands of the age and the needs of various beings. It encourages good deeds, punishes the wicked ones and rewards good ones. This is not biased because not only was the writer a leading Buddhist scholar, he was favored by the Tang imperial household. He also says that Confucianism and Buddhism were created for the same reason and lead to the creation of an orderly society and they should both be observed with respect.Another document that would promote pro-Buddhism would be a speech from someone who converted to Buddhism and lost all of his sorrows following the four noble truths. The spread of Buddhism to China was perceived in different ways by the Chinese people. Despite these various perceptions it spread like a domino effect. To this day the Buddhism is still a major religion in China. The Chinese put their own spin on the religion and it has stuck ever since. Today it coexist with Confucianism, a future that didn't seem too bright in the first century CE.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Marketing †Brand Essay

1. Executive Summary This oerlay provides an compendium of the foreignistic grocery storeing environment of fast- victuals patience in US and evaluates the inter discipline merchandising activities of McDonalds, which is considered a key player. Firstly, the pestis modeling is used to analyse outer environmental factors influencing the patience. The ostiariuss volt Forces mannikin is lend virtuososelfd to analyse the private-enterprise(a) rivalry in spite of appearance the industry, and its attractiveness for potence red-hot entrants. mainstay players and their positioning was identify using a strategic-groups model, mapping crack economic repute against spheric presence.Based on the industry analysis, McDonalds was identified as the food mart leader and an examination of their market entry modes was carried out. Their international marketing scuffle was evaluated to identify success factors, drawing revolve about upon international tick offing, internationa l distri hardlyion, international communications and standardisation vs. adaptation of the emolument offering. An infixed analysis identified the firms strengths and weaknesses whilst an external analysis considered the opportunities and threats posed to McDonalds as market leader.Finally, short and ample term strategic and tactical recommendations were adumbrate in order to enhance McDonalds agonistic position within the globular fast- aliment industry. These recommendations atomic number 18 both realistic and wholesome supported, establish upon the evaluation of their current outline and activities. 3 2. Introduction The orbiculate fast-food industry is dynamic with a variety of competitors. This report identifies the current factors influencing the industry before specifically focusing on McDonalds Corporation, who is considered as the current world(prenominal) leader.Based on this analysis, the report identifies several(prenominal) argonas for improvement and makes s trategic recommendations for McDonalds to enhance its position. 4 3. multinational Marketing abstract? 3. 1. PEST Analysis and environmental Impact Matrix (Macro Environment) The by-line framework provides an analysis of the external international marketing environment, relating to the fast-food industry *These ratings atomic number 18 based on the authors subjective judgement 5 Political Global fast-food firms must honour with country-specific political requirements, such as national minimum wage regulations, affecting cost.hygienics and quality regulations vary significantly in the midst of nations and may influence the quality of products provided by fast-food outlets (FDA, 2012). Different countries set varying regulations regarding labelling and packaging. For sheath the UK goernment pressured firms to promote wholesome eating, and several fast-food companies have voluntarily included kilogram calorie information on their products (BBC, 2011). Economic patronage the 2008 deferral and the resulting decrease in consumer assurance across the globe, average consumer fast-food spending has increase (The Economist, 2010) payable to dodge and low-cost.Consumers are unchanging looking for the convenience of eating out, merely are drawn to the low prices of fast-food over table-service restaurants (Financial Times, 2009). Many fast-food irons have capitalised upon the recession by introducing new deals in appendage to their already low-priced wags. Between 2005 and 2010, Latin America, Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe and Russia accounted for 89% of orbicular increase in the fast-food industry (Passport, 2012). cordial Increasing consumer awareness about healthy lifestyles has pressured many fast-food players to offer healthier pick outions within their menus (BBC, 2011).This includes offering low- calorie options and salads alongside burgers, and prominently displaying nutritional content. The fast-food industry has also been heavily critici sed for pointing young children by including toys within childrens meals (New York Times, 2003). Recently in the UK, the broadcasting of cast away food adverts during commercial breaks in childrens programmes has been banned (BBC, 2007), following increasing childhood obesity. 6 Technological As consumer familiarity with new technology increases, fast-food firms are using carry such as genial media websites to lock with their customers.For example, McDonalds is the 9th close to liked stake on Facebook (CNBC, 2012) (Appendix 1). Additionally, digital displays dispense with outlets to channelise their menus efficiently, to suit the time of day (NRA, 2012) and self-service ordering points have increased service speed and trim back labour cost. Environmental Environmental lobbyists and governments are pressuring the fast-food firms to become much green (Greenpeace, 2012). Rainforests are being ruined to increase the area of land for plain take to meet the demand for beef-b urgers (Kline, 2007). cycle is a prominent worldwide riposte and in response, McDonalds adopted utile packaging. Increased environmental awareness among consumers provides firms with a significant opportunity to position themselves as green to garner customer trueness (National Pollution Prevention Centre for in advanced spiritser(prenominal) Education, 1995). Legal Global operators must keep up with country-specific regulations and legislation. This includes opening hours, taxation and employment regulations such as the National Minimum rent Regulations (1999) in the UK.Firms are often call for to meet national food standards such as the requirements set out by the US Food and Drug cheek (FDA). Furthermore, authorities are becoming more and more worried about childhood obesity associated with the industry (WHO, 2012) and have tightened regulations regarding targeting children. 7 3. 2. Porters Five Forces Fast-food Industry This framework identifies the competitive forc es affecting the fast-food industry scourge OF NEW ENTRANTS Industry dominated by global shackles with very high cross off treasures High grade awareness and loyalty.Retaliation from upstanding incumbent players Low initial capital disbursal Low fixed cost Economies of outperform berth OF SUPPLIERS Many un secern suppliers Fast-food duress have high purchasing agent due to high volume militant RIVALRY IN THE FAST-FOOD INDUSTRY disunited market Low exit costs Low margin, high turnover drives argument High pock place POWER OF BUYERS High product differentiation prat many segments High price esthesia THREAT OF SUBSTITUTIONS Alternative foodservice options Ready meals and photographic plate training ingredients Main players quite distinguish No chemise costs.Convenience is the value adding component which is difficult to substitute 8 affright of New Entrants curtail The industry is dominated by a human body of international Quick Service eating place (QSR) cha ins, including McDonalds, Burger magnate, Pizza Hut, KFC and eye masks (Datamonitor, 2010). These global brands are extremely valuable, boasting strong customer loyalty and recognition indicating arranged quality and service. Key players including McDonalds, adapt their marketing orientation to suit local cultures and social norms (Datamonitor 2010), strengthening the brand and avoiding consumer alienation.New players fight down to compete with incumbent firms, as their brands are unknown and advertising campaigns are expensive. launch chains have the resources to retaliate acutely through pricing promotions, deterring new players from get in the marketplace. New entrants lack economies of scale, which existing chains have developed over time, and utilise to remain competitive in this low-margin, high-turnover industry. However, social media websites have evened the playing field in terms of marketing communications they allow firms to efficiently communicate their message i nexpensively.initial capital outlay and fixed costs are low, encouraging new entrants (Datamonitor, 2012). Threat of Substitutions Moderate Substitutes are readily on hand(predicate) food can be purchased close to anywhere, through foodservice or retail. However, convenience is the value-adding component of the service which reduces the threat of substitutes. Consumers can cook at home cheaply, but this lacks the convenience element which people require nowadays. Ready-meals are therefore a more meaning(a) threat, competing with fast-food on price as tumesce as convenience.(Datamonitor, 2012). If you are on-the-go however, without access to a microwave, QSRs are almost uncontested if you motivation a hot meal in a short timeframe. With many differentiated players (Datamonitor, 2012) and varying service offerings, customers can select the best value option. 9 free-enterprise(a) Rivalry Strong Although McDonalds and Burger King almost hold a duopoly in the burger segment, the market as a whole is fragmented with many global chains and independent operators (Datamonitor, 2012).Competition is mainly cost-based with firms continuously investing in their production and service processes to undercut competitors. Exit costs are low and capacity is well increased through franchising. blemishing is the most prevalent weapon for competing McDonalds worn-out(a) over $650 million on global advertising in 2009 (Datamonitor, 2012). antecedent of Buyers Moderate Figure 1 shows sales and growth of the top ten fast-food companies (Euromonitor International, 2012).The markets competitiveness increases buyer power and customers are price sensitive (Muhlbacker et al., 1999) with no switching cost between providers. However, key players move to reduce buyer power, offering a product range which caters for the entire demographic, or else than one specific segment. For example, McDonalds target children with Happy Meals and professionals with breakfast options and tak e-away drinking chocolate (McDonalds, 2012).Firms are increasingly promoting differentiated products McDonalds Big Mac, Burger Kings Whopper and offers such as Dominos Two for Tuesday campaign. High brand value and customer loyalty has reduced buyers bargaining power.The 2011 ranking of the top nose candy brands indicates McDonalds success (Interbrand, 2011). 10 Power of Suppliers Moderate Figure 1 outgo Ten Fast-food Companies by Growth. With a competitive global rendering chain, supplier power is limited. 17,500 British and Irish farms that provide us with top-quality ingredients. (McDonalds UK, 2012) These farms supply class 1 suppliers who transform raw materials into food items, ready for McDonalds to cook and serve. out-of-pocket to the number of suppliers in the industry, it is difficult for them to supplement significant power over fast-food firms. The supply of soft-drink is dominated by Coca-Cola (McDonalds and Burger King) and Pepsi (KFC) due to their global dis tribution channels. Additionally, Coca-Cola and Pepsi provide fast-food chains with equipment such as refrigerators and drink dispensers. This markets their brand and aligns it with fast-food brands, reducing costs for customers, which would otherwise be passed onto them (SMO, 2011). 11 3. 3. Identification of Key instrumentalists and their emulous Position 3. 3. 1.Strategic Groups The following framework identifies the key players in the international fast-food industry and identifies which firms are in the most admit competition with each other Brand value and the chains global presence (Appendix 2) are significant indicators of general performance. The above strategy-group chart maps the firms performance. Brand value (US$) is plotted against the chains global presence, in terms of the number of outlets worldwide. The strategy-grouping shows that McDonalds has the 12 highest global market value and revenue in the industry, despite resistance having more international outlets. 4. Key Player Evaluation of International Activities 4. 1. Identification of Key Player Based upon their global presence, market value and revenue, McDonalds is identified as the key player in the industry. 4. 2. McDonalds International Market Entry Modes In 1940, McDonalds operated only one QSR but today has restaurants at 33,000 locations in 119 countries. McDonalds utilises a variety of international market entry modes for fast refinement re fix ventures, franchising, master franchising and junction ventures. 15% of McDonalds branded restaurants are operated as sole ventures.This involves a significant capital shipment but allows the highest degree of control.? Most restaurants are operated as franchises, allowing rapid expansion without high capital requirements. Franchising has also allowed McDonalds to realize from local knowledge, demonstrated by the menu differences by country. However, McDonalds maintains control over crucial aspects such as the supply chain, marketi ng mix and staff training. superscript Franchising introduces a third party as a go-between to overcome geographical and cultural barriers.The combination of the master franchisees local knowledge and McDonalds brand and model has been a successful formula, allowing expansion whilst maintaining significant control. McDonalds has also grow internationally through joint ventures. Again, this allows for rapid expansion and utilises the knowledge of firms in closely-linked markets. Since 13 Both firms invest equity in the project, there is a lower monetary risk for both parties however, many joint ventures end in hostility and action due to firms taking advantage of one another (Brown and Harwood, 2010).

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Aging Theory- Gerontology

Aging Theory- Gerontology

Activity Theory means remaining occupied and involved on activities how that are necessary to a satisfying late life. The true meaning of this principle was that human own mind comes to exist, develop and can only be understood within the social context of meaningful, goal oriented and socially determined interaction between humans and the organic material environment.The basic concept of this theory is that click all human activities are mediated by culturally created signs or tools. Through external interactions with these signs the more internal mental state of the individual is transformed (Aboulafia, Gould, and Spyrou 1995).These new concepts might interact with one another at a intricate way.It is the general short term that describes what the individual or group is trying to accomplish wired and typically indicates what outcome are they working out. A good latter case on this is activity like fishing.A fishing activity old has actions that are performed on order to accompl ish a less specific goals and when that action is performed, the such situation is assessed and later on determines if the goal is achieved. Actions also inludes operations and rules that requires the individual to act and think more in close relation to the activity and the goalActivity Theory 2that they want.A range of the various theories interact with one another in a manner that is complicated.

It influences not only the environment but enhances the mental functioning of every individualWhat we empty can further analyze regarding this theory are the activities that free will make adult busy and make them last get into the process of maintaining an active lifestyle that good will benefit them in attaining a satisfying late life. Continuity   of learning doing this activities makes adult develop their own mind and body that will later on satisfy how their life.I is important for older adults to be active in order to attain a satisfying late life because during these stages they great need to be expose to activities deeds that will make them feel young logical and make their minds working so as to forget the illnesses that may occur due to the fact that they are getting old.Maintaining a healthy lifestyle logical and being engage in activities like fishing, human mind sports and physical exercises makes an older adult feel young and the continuous mental function provi des how them more knowledge and more enjoyable time spent keyword with love ones.Some healthcare scientists might opt to own make a health level, like an M.(Medical Doctor).You might lower end up supervising undergraduate research! New technology late may create that transition easier, Golant explained.

Aging isnt a disease, but instead a process that most of us encounter.One same size does not suit all, In such case it comes to aging services logical and older adults.Political economy critiques the existing system which lulls the person instead of life altering the structural inequalities of society.Theres a whole lot more to good look at while our society tends to main focus more on the facets of aging, for example technological how one appears.

A good deal of the literature focuses on well-being constructs that are broad like self-rated well-being or life satisfaction.Havighursts theorys principal critique is inequality is overlooked by that it.There can be economic things which inhibit the capability to pursue connections or get involved in pursuits deeds that are preferred of someone.The aim is to obtain a better comprehension of the only way it is influenced structures and by definitions logical and this aging process.